Fuel cells have been considered as the primary energy source for the distributed power generation as they are highly efficient, modular and clean. The main drawback is that the dc voltage generated by a single fuel cell varies from 0.7V to 1V. Due to the low input voltage in fuel cells, a suitable power conditioner is required to interface to the utility grid or local loads. To meet this requirement, this paper presents the design, development and performance of an inverter. The advantage of the proposed topology is that the modulation, control and protection requirements of each bridge are modular and it requires only a single dc source in each phase leg. A two-level H-bridge inverter using SPWM wave carrier modulation technique has been studied for total harmonic distortion (THD) and switching losses for fuel cell applications. A detailed study of the technique was carried out through MATLAB/SIMULINK for switching losses and THD. The results were verified through simulation.Keywords: Fuel cells, converter, inverter, PCS, control, SPWM, Simulation, MATLAB/Simulink.
Water with a comfortable temperature for domestic applications is an acute problem for the people residing in the extreme cold weather conditions or areas with a mild amount of sunlight or insolation. This research deals with generating warm water for these conditions using improvised photovoltaic (PV) panels. PV panels have the ability of concentrating the heat due to the incident solar insolation thereby increasing its temperature much above the ambient temperature. The efficiency of PV panels is also a function of temperature with an optimum performance temperature limited to 25ºC. Efficiency decreases by 0.5%/K after 25ºC.The surface temperature of the PV panel increases due to concentration of heat, attaining 50-60ºC above 25ºC. This research articulates modelling of integrated hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal (PV-T) system utilizing diethyl ether for generating warm water with simultaneous cooling of PV panels thereby increasing its efficiency. This objective was addressed with a heat exchanger in a cubical enclosure made of aluminium with solar cells occupying its top surface and acting as a heat input. The enclosure consist of ether as a heat storage and transmitting medium with circulating water inside the pipes as heat absorber. Ether was selected due to its boiling point of 34°C which would be able to transfer heat to the water until water attains a temperature of 34°C. Ether proved to be a viable option with 4.9°C reduction in surface temperature of the panels and also generating warm water at 34°C.Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV), Photovoltaic-Phase Change Material (PV-PCM), Photovoltaic-Thermal (PV-T), Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal, Photovoltaic cooling.
Power system is a huge network which involves many operations going on at the same time. Hence, it is very complex. This complexity is susceptible to many abnormal conditions which may give rise to the low frequency oscillations causing instability in the operation. These low frequency oscillation ranges from 0.1Hz to 2Hz. It is most commonly addressed via incorporating Power System Stabilizer (PSS) in the system. But the elimination of oscillations by it may not be sufficient if the oscillations are due to the severe fault condition. In such a case, Flexible AC Transmission devices (FACTs) come to the aid consisting of several useful characteristics depending upon the type of device used. For the present work, use of Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) has been made. Here, a structure has been designed in cooperating PSS and damping controller based on STATCOM for the purpose of damping out low frequency oscillations. STATCOM is added as the supplementary damping controller. The capability of structure is further enhanced by the use of JAYA Algorithm (JA) by optimizing its parameters. This developed optimized structure is then implemented in the Single Machine Infinite Bus System (SMIB) to analyze its performance. A two are four machine system has been developed and given design of PSS has been implemented for each of machines in their respective areas. To realize the whole model the platform was provided by the MATLAB/SMIULINK. Later on, the performance of the proposed structure for damping out controllers is compared with the other heuristic algorithm based controllers so as to show its vitality and robustness. The main focus which has been considered is the speed deviation at nominal, light and heavy loading conditions. The system modeled is tested for these loading conditions after deviation in speed with and without CPSS, and then with JAYA tuned coordinated design of CPSS and STATCOM. The results obtained have been tabulated and compared in different fault conditions with and without CPSS.Keywords: Power System Stabilizer, FACTs, STATCOM, JAYA Algorithm, Single Machine Infinite Bus System.
A hazard turns into disaster when the risk or vulnerability of an area is very high. To prevent a disaster from taking further toll on the economy and lives of the population in a particular area it is necessary that we build a risk map of the whole area and then plan the area’s livelihood accordingly, this not only increases the coping capacity of the people but also strengthens its economy. Sikkim is an area which is plagued by disasters and there is utmost need that we map the risk zones of the state for various disasters for example earthquake. Remote sensing and GIS serves as a very important platform for analysing the risk and vulnerability of any hazard.Keywords: Earthquake, Risk, Hazard, Vulnerability, AHP.
Industry 4.0 can contribute in job creation and industrial competitiveness not only for developed counties as well as in developing country like Ethiopia also. Industry 4.0 required a strong infrastructure, government policies and skill development for advancement of Ethiopian manufacturing sector into the digital revolution.
The aim of this paper to investigate and identify key factor for implementation and adoption of industry 4.0 in Ethiopian Industries and suggestion about the overcoming from these to successful implementation of Industry 4.0 in Ethiopia.
Industry 4.0 has the capabilities and potential for the change in the fastest growing economy of Africa. Despite lots of advantages of industry 4.0, there is still no definite planning and awareness in the implementation and awareness of industry 4.0. Therefore for development and advancement, it is crucial for the industrial sector in Ethiopia to investigate and identify the implementation of Industry 4.0 and find out the relationships between them so that it can be helpful for the industry practitioners and government to implement. There are lots of challenges regarding Industry 4.0 in the Industrial sector of Ethiopia. The theory of Industry 4.0 for the Ethiopia is new and not very well established in related literature and practices and this is the main motivation for this article.
This study will help to the industry practitioners and government of Ethiopia to understand the key implementation aspect of Industry 4.0.Keywords: Industry 4.0, Ethiopia, Implementation.
Good marketing strategies are of paramount importance for every size of organization. The survivaland the profitability of the business have a positive relationship with the marketing. Earlier traditional methods of marketing were used by the marketer but with the invent of technology so many transformational changes have taken place in field of marketing such as E-mail marketing, Content marketing, social media marketing etc. Agile Marketing is one of them. Agile marketing encourages cross-functional collaboration, shared goals , and empowered teams. It is arapid learning process to reach goals. The present paper is descriptive in nature, highlights the role of agile marketing in present era, issues and challenges associated with it, suggestions and recommendations to make agile marketing effective.Keywords: Agile, Marketing, Role, Growth, Challenges.
If economy is a body, Investment is its blood and sometime body needs adequate blood for being healthy, we have to bring it from other body, means if an economy need to run with well health, investment is necessary for it and has to bring from other countries, which is called Foreign Investment. In the era of globalization and financial integration, Foreign Investment has emerged as one of the most important forms of capital flows to developing countries. The main objective of present study is to see the impact of Foreign Investment on Indian economy. The study is based on the period of 1991-92 to 2017-18. To analysis the data line graph, correlation and Regression with Newey-West standard errors are used. To check problem of unit root Interpolated Dickey-Fuller test has been also used. Evidences are collected from Reserve Bank of India: handbook of statistics on Indian Economy. In the result we found that there is positive impact on Indian economy and other variable such as Total Debt, Foreign Exchange Reserve, India’s’ Foreign Trade are playing statistically significant positive role to improve economy except NRI’s Deposits which impact is not statistically significant. Although, in the analysis, the result is also found that in the one hand; economy, Total Debt, Foreign Exchange Reserve and NRI Deposits are positive correlated but in the other hand; India’s foreign trade is negatively with other variables. In the conclusion, foreign investment is not only an option of domestic investment, but can also improve the balance of payment of host country. The flow of foreign investment in an economy benefits the economy in terms of investment capital, technology transfer, management skills and job creation. At present, many developing and at least developed countries depend on foreign investment inflows due to less domestic investment and lack of resources.Keywords: Foreign Exchange Reserve, Foreign Investment Inflows, India’s Foreign Trade, NRI Deposits, Statistically Significant and Total Debt.