Water samples were taken from 6 private hand dug wells sited at major locations within the community. The samples were assessed for both the bacteriological and physicochemical parameters. Water quality parameters: pH, chloride, nitrate, ammonium, electrical conductivity, turbidity, Iron, Phosphate, sulphate, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total acidity and total alkalinity were determined using standard methods. Faecal coliform, Heterotrophic, Vibrio and Salmonella spp. counts were determined by standard methods. All the physico-chemical parameters analyzed (except turbidity and nitrate) fell within the WHO and EPA standards for drinking water having a p-value of 0.05.The bacteriological analyses, however, showed that the total heterotrophic count ranged from 1.3x106-1.5x107 cfu/ml, the highest coliform count was 3.6x106 cfu/ml, highest Salmonella-Shigella counts was 6.3x103 cfu/ml) and Highest E. coli count was 2.8x104 cfu/ml). The bacteria isolated from water samples in this work included Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhosa, Shigella spp, Vibrio cholerae, Proteus spp, Klebsiella spp. with Salmonella sp. However, Shigella and V. cholera were only isolated from A, B, D, E samples. Epidemiological data revealed that the reported cases in clinics of water borne diseases like diarrhea and typhoid fever were high, showing infections through consumption of contaminated water from the hang-dug wells. The presence of these biological indicators suggest that the water is potentially harmful to human health if consumed untreated. This study revealed that he presence of these biological indicators suggest that the water is potentially harmful to human health if consumed untreated. Appropriate awareness and local institutional capacity building through provision of well-protected latrines, piped water and sustainable sanitation to reduce potential risk to public health is therefore advocated.Keywords: Physicochemical, Epidemiological, Indicators, Bacteriological.
The rapid depletion of fossil fuels and rising environmental problems opened a door for renewable energy resources. The mostly used for renewable energy resources solar energy is the one. Due to the higher cost of solar panel efficient operation is to be essential. In this paper the artificial neural network based on MPPT is proposed.Keywords:
This paper describes the detailed design, analysis of energy dip in solar PV based centralized DC micro grid in rural electrification. Based on the technical and environmental benefits of the renewable energy related solar PV systems are discussed in this paper comparison between the three types of microgrid systems is presented. In this work the consumption of load is about 4.5kWh including the Home load and water pumping system. The estimated required Components such as solar PV Panel, charge controller, battery, distribution system is considered for DC micro grid. further, the voltage dip and Energy drop calculations are presented. The analyzed three architectures are simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK for power loss and results are presented.Keywords: DC Micro grid, voltage dip, Power loss, Rural Electrification.
A large number of road construction projects are currently under design and construction stage in India. If these projects are constructed with high modulus bituminous mixes then there will be a huge amount of savings in materials, reduced maintenance cost and increased service life of the pavement. High modulus bituminous mixes can be produced by using hard grade bitumen. The present experimental study aims at production of hard grade bitumen with PPA as modifier for the preparation of high modulus bituminous mixes. Bituminous mixes were prepared with Dense Bituminous Macadam (D.B.M) gradation for both conventional and laboratory produced hard grade bitumen. The tests conducted on prepared mixes were Marshall stability, Indirect tensile strength (ITS) and Resilient modulus (Mr). From the test results the optimum binder content was found as 5.27 % and 5.46 % for virgin and hard grade bituminous mixes. The marshall stability and ITS of mixes prepared with hard grade bitumen was found as 1.14 and 1.32 times higher than the virgin bituminous mixes. Resilient modulus at 35 oC found as 3310 MPa for mix prepared with hard grade bitumen and 1746 MPa for the virgin mix. Further, a pavement section was designed for 300 msa as per IRC: 37-2018 guidelines by using IIT Pave. After conducting several trials in IIT Pave the thickness of the base course is decreased by 40 mm by considering the bituminous mix prepared with hard grade bitumen.Keywords: Hard grade bitumen, High modulus mix, Marshall stability and Resilient modulus.
Use of green composites for contemporary medication, is anticipated to be a key subject of modern-day chemistry research. As such, a lot of research is being carried out on the green materials and their potential use in biomedical applications. This paper discusses about the some basic applications of green materials in the field of the biomedical area and there production. Crucial production concepts of bio-composites, like the different types of natural biocomposites, the composing material classes and the common families and their fabrication techniques are discussed. The technologies discussed include extrusion/injection, compression, and pultrusion process for fabrication of these fibers is discussed.Keywords: Green composites, Biodegradable polymers, biomedical applications, processing techniques.