In this paper, a refrigeration system using shell and tube evaporator will be converted to a refrigeration system using a plate type evaporator. The performance of the modified system will be evaluated and compared with the performance of the plate type evaporator. A refrigeration system working on a shell and tube evaporator was selected, charged with refrigerant R134a. Temperature and pressure readings were taken at both the inlet and outlet of both the evaporator and condenser unit respectively. The refrigeration system with shell and tube evaporator was then removed and replaced with a plate type evaporator. The system was evacuated, charged with refrigerant and readings were taken at both the inlet and outlet of the evaporator and condenser respectively. Experimental results obtained shows that the refrigeration efficiency of the shell and tube evaporator was 64.33% and that of the plate type evaporator was 85.24%. The result obtained shows that the COP of the refrigerator using the plate type evaporator is higher than that of the refrigerator using the shell and tube evaporator. The refrigeration system working on a plate type evaporator has higher refrigeration capacity and lower compressor work, low liquid hold up, higher surface area than the shell and tube evaporator system.Keywords: Coefficient of Performance, Evaporator, Plate type, refrigerant, Refrigeration system, Shell and tube.
A marketing strategy is a business's overall game plan for reaching people and turning them into customers of the product or service that the business provides. The selling strategy of an organization holds the company’s price proposition, key marketing messages, information on the target customer and other high-level components. The marketing strategy is a route map of the marketing plan, which is a document that lays out the types and timing of marketing activities. A company’s marketing strategy is expected to have a longer lifespan than any individual marketing plan as the strategy is; where the value proposition and the key components of a company’s brand image reside. These components ideally do not shift very much over time. The marketing strategies adopted by organizations may vary from industry to industry and may even vary among similar industries. Marketing strategies helps in developing products and services in one business that can meet the needs of the target market. Good marketing strategies helps the customers understand the products or services in a better way. A good selling strategy must be drawn from marketing research and specialize in the proper merchandise combine so as to attain the most profit potential and sustain the business. A marketing strategy is also important for developing a promotional strategy as it helps the business identify its target market and to set measurable goals. It is vital to the success of the organization that implements a marketing plan that aims for growth and positive change in the bottom line.Keywords: Marketing strategy, Customer etc.
Our country, Pakistan, is facing an energy crisis and poor economy. The need of the time is to develop a solution which promotes a better lifestyle and less burden on the economy. This paper represents the design and implementation of an automated classroom that not only uses smart algorithms but based on the ECOs (Energy Conversion Opportunities) of an energy audit it reduces the energy consumption without affecting the performance of system and then make a priority list of these opportunities to optimize the energy consumption. A prototype comprising of a smart central unit which monitors occupants, their location and their preference trends using Passive Infrared motion sensors and automated switching that control lighting and heating, and an Android application that monitors and controls the smart system has been implemented. The prototype has been tested in two identical environments; one classroom was treated as an experimental group and the other as the control group. The results show that the ‘smart’ classroom with integrated algorithms and control architecture smartly distributes the available energy and keeps the classroom in optimal conditions. It proves to be significantly effective in saving energy. Thus it has been concluded that with this approach we can save energy and money that was previously wasted and efficiently consume energy considering our country’s limited energy resources.Keywords: Passive Infrared Module, Android Application, Energy Auditing, Smart Classroom.
Recently researchers of Human Resource Management have highlighted the advantages of a committed workforce. All the activities of an organization are initiated and completed by employees and every success of organization depends on efficient and committed human resource. It is significant that for the success of the organization it is need of the day to implement best HRM practices for the employees’ commitment to the organization. HRM practices molds employee’s commitment level and their behavior and attitude. To build up the employee commitment through HR practices can lead to hard and long time work as well as the accomplish the organization’ goals. The aim of this study is to identify the role of Human Resource Management practices on employees’ commitment of organizations with the review of existing literature and theory.Keywords: Commitment, employee, HRM, organization’s goal.
This paper present hybrid wind-PV-battery system dynamic model developed in MATLAB/Simulink software, the control strategy for energy management proposed by the fuzzy logic rule viewer. A PV panel, wind panel and dynamic models of lithium-ion storage connected together with the DC link and all these sources are working on the basis of fuzzy rule based control. The DC link is connected through the power electronic interfacing circuit (converters) and converters connected to a source for a diverse electricity generation. All sources work on the basis of the MPPT control algorithm, which will work if and only if the panel operates at the peak point of power generation. The hybrid generation systems that can maintain continuous load power demand and provide satisfied operation on the main constraints. The developed control strategy can control various devices and different power interface circuitry. The main objective of this thesis is that to ensure a continuous power by coordinating appropriate control strategy with all sources. The simulation studies have been carried out to determine system performance with different scenarios of the sources such as typical solar radiation, temperature, air and battery charge or discharge conditions. Simulation test results show variable power generation and verify the performance of the integrated system with control strategy is overall effective for real-time installation. The developed system is essential in an isolated region where an existing grid is unable to supply secure power generation and system is beneficial with smartly feed ultimate power generation sources.Keywords: Hybrid system wind -PV , Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), Fuzzy logic controller (FLC), Photo voltaic array(PVarray).