The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides namely 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs are measured for sediments samples collected from different locations of Karnafuli riverbed near estuary, Chattogram, Bangladesh. High-purity gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) was used to determine the activity concentration of these radionuclides in 20 sediments samples were taken from Karnafuli River Estuary. The concentration of 238U varied in the range 23.75 ± 10.20 Bq/kg to 57.84 ± 13.80 Bq/kg with an average of 37.78 ± 9.77 Bq/kg, 232Th in the range 33.44 ± 13.77 Bq/kg to 81.86 ± 14.71 Bq/kg with an average of 55.08 ± 13.40 Bq/kg and 40K in the range 400.41 ± 73.89 Bq/kg to 621.65 ± 107.05 Bq/kg with an average of 439.31 ± 98.63 in sediments samples. The anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs has not been detected in any samples. The results have been compared with those of different countries of the world and worldwide values. To assess the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the absorbed dose rate, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the effective dose rate (Eeff), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), the radioactivity level index (I?), and the external (Hex) and internal (Hin) hazard indices were calculated. It can be concluded that no risk may threat the residents around Karnafuli River Estuary. Hence the probability of occurrence of any of the health effects of radiation is low. Hence, measurements have been taken as representing baseline values of these radionuclides in the sediments of studying area.Keywords: Estuary, Sediments, Radioactivity, Anthropogenic, Contamination, HPGe detector.
The globalization has brought down high inflations among both developed and developing economies in the late 1990’s. Most of the developing countries integrated their economies to global economy. This inflation has brought advantages in some countries and challenges in other countries. This is very important to know the influencing factors in open economies to gain the advantages of managed inflation. From the in-depth review of
literature, we identified three variables such as exchange rate intervention (exchange rate, forex reserves) and globalization were having high impact on inflation in India and China. The study is based on panel data modeling using seventeen years of monthly data from January 1st 2010 to December 31st 2021 of India and China. The required data set for the selected countries were obtained from various sources. The study employed GMM estimation method to check the behavior of variables. The empirical results indicate that there is a positive correlation of independent variables with dependent variable i.e. inflation.