Advancement in energy technologies are much needed for social and economical enlargement of our society. The weakest electric grid in the world in India lost 26% of total power generation as transmission and distribution losses. The sustainable energy resources and development of efficient modules are highly required in present power system. Existing power system is designed as a one way supply system from source to utility. The objective of this paper is to study the problems of conventional power grids in India, and optimize the problems through smart grid to enhance the bidirectional flow of power in distribution network. The increasing embodiment of renewable energy sources and variable energy consumption patterns make the smart grid complex. Smart grid (SG) components such as smart meters, virtual power system and microgrid are discussed with challenges in adoption of smart grid. Renewable energy sources provides a solution against the emission of CO2 from conventional power system by the establishment of smart grid. Game theory approach has been proposed in smart grid to conflicting the grid secure in global environment and reduces the dependency of consumers on fossil fuel sources. This paper discusses the overview of game theory, Cooperative and non-cooperative game theory.Keywords: smart grid, climate change, microgrid, cooperative game theory, non-cooperative game theory.
DSM (Demand side management) is an approach have the objective to make our consumers energy efficient for long term. DSM can be designed to control the electricity consumption of individual users. DSM categorized the load in two groupsâ€™ base line load which are constant and uninterruptible loads and interruptible loads which can shift from peak duration to normal duration and their consumption duration is also manageable. Demand side Management for the consumer in the presence of storage units and DGâ€™s is executed by Non-Cooperative Game Theory. Non-cooperative game theory deals with individual consumers without any cooperation with other consumers and provide the benefit to the active consumers who manage their load from peak hour to normal hour to reduce the PAPCR (peak to average power consumption ratio). DGâ€™s generation is variable depending upon load forecasting and storage units also have some minimum and maximum capacity of storage will manage by machine learning with load forecasting used as learning source and storage units characteristics will manage by non-cooperative game theory. If assume that the energy provider adjudicate the electricity cost with reference to normal peak hour, consumer stop consuming electricity during peak hour and started to sell the electricity to energy provider to enhance their profit and store electricity during low cost hours and introduce a new peak at a different time frame. The system required another game for energy provider to manage the electricity cost on real time bases to stop the generation of new peak and try to minimize the PAPCR and minimize the benefit of the energy provider. Every energy provider and consumer want to earn maximum benefit. A new stackelberg game is introduce to provide maximum benefit to the provider. When a consumer shift their load to newly introduced peak duration, the energy provider will respond and accommodate the electricity price again. In stackelberg game energy provider part as leader and consumer will participate as followers. Objective of the research is to provide maximum benefit to the energy provider and active consumers; design a mathematical model through the algorithm of non-cooperative game and stackelberg game for both consumer and energy provider respectively to find out the nash equilibrium between consumer and energy provider. The outcome of the problem will introduce by two defined games non-cooperative game will reduce the cost of electricity for the consumers have storage units and DGâ€™s and manage the load and Stackelberg game will minimize the power to average consumption ratio.Keywords: Game Theory, Non-cooperative Game, Stackelberg Game, Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation.
Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a process for shaping hard metals and forming deep complex shaped holes by arc erosion in all kinds of electro-conductive materials. The objective of this project is to study the influence of operating parameters of EDM on the machining characteristics such as surface quality, material removal rate and electrode wear. The effectiveness of EDM process is evaluated in terms of the material removal rate, the relative wear ratio and the surface finish quality of the work piece produced. It is observed that copper tungsten is most suitable for use as the tool electrode in EDM. Better machining performance is obtained generally with the electrode as the cathode and the work piece as an anode. In this Project, a study was carried out on the influence of the parameters such peak current, power supply voltage, pulse on time and pulse off time.Keywords: EDM, Electrode, Cathode, Anode, Current, Voltage.
The case study look up how employee well being is associated with a positive outcome of reducing stress or improvement in productivity. The purpose of this study is to understand theimplementation of the well being programmes in the tourism and hospitality organisations of Jaipur, capital of Rajasthan, India. The research findings indicate that the organisations offer a range of services to the employees related to emotional, intellectual, social and physical well being. However, the employees also responded that many tourism and hospitality organisations still did not recognise the importance of well being.
Therefore, the main aim of this case study is to understand the importance of well being in tourism and hospitality organisations and current practices in Jaipur relating to employee well being.Keywords: Employee well being, HRM practices, Jaipur, Tourism and Hospitality.
The main purpose of the research was to study the relationship between Teacher attitude and Teaching aptitude of prospective secondary school teachers as they are the future teachers and many at times become the role models for their students. The researcher took 650 prospective secondary school teachers from 10 colleges of education under Nagarjuna university. Teacher attitude inventory by Dr. S.P. Ahluwalia and Teaching aptitude test developed by S.C Gakhar and Dr. Rajnish were used to measure the Teacher attitude and Teaching aptitude of the prospective teachers. The analysis and interpretation of the data was done by calculating the co-efficient of correlation. The major findings of the study were: 1) The Teacher attitude and Teaching aptitude have significant positive correlation 2) Academic qualifications do not have any significant influence on the relationship between Teacher attitude and Teaching aptitude of prospective secondary school teachers. 3) Methodology opted does not have any significant influence on the relationship between Teacher attitude and Teaching aptitude of the prospective secondary school teachers.Keywords: Teacher attitude, Teaching aptitude, Prospective secondary school teachers.
The paper signifies a technique based on the conventional displacement method of elastic analysis, Push-over analysis of concrete structures and a simplified method for non-linear static analysis of building structures subjected to monotonically increasing horizontal loading.Keywords: Design, elastic, pushover, stress.