Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem in the world particularly in the developing countries. In developing countries there are varied factors which affect the health of the people. Majority of these can be prevented by adopting preventive measures and raising the level of knowledge of the people. So it is important that the patients should have adequate knowledge regarding the disease to survive and prevent further infection.
The study aimed at assessing the existing knowledge regarding pulmonary tuberculosis among clients before implementation of planned teaching programme [Pre-test], assessing the knowledge after the implementation of planned teaching programme [Post-test], to compare the pre-test and post-test knowledge scores regarding pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the association of pre-test knowledge scores regarding pulmonary tuberculosis among clients with their selected demographic variables i.e. Age, Gender, Marital status, Type of family, Educational status, Occupation, and Income per month. A one group pre-test post-test pre-experimental approach was adopted. The study was conducted on 57 clients registered at district tuberculosis centre Pulwama, who were selected by total enumerative scattered sampling technique. Data was collected by administering structured knowledge interview schedule. The content validity of the tool and teaching plan was established. The reliability of tool was established by testing the internal consistency by using Test -retest method.
Result of study indicate that total among 57 subjects, 30(52.63%) subjects had moderately adequate level of knowledge regarding pulmonary tuberculosis, 22(38.60%) subjects had inadequate level of knowledge and only 5(8.77%) subjects had adequate knowledge before planned teaching programme. Where as in post-test, majority of the subjects 56(98.25%) had adequate level of knowledge regarding pulmonary tuberculosis, and only 1(1.75%) subject had moderately level of knowledge after planned teaching programme. The mean pre-test knowledge score was (28.31) which improved to (43.68) in post-test (p <0.001). This means Planned teaching programme improved the knowledge of clients regarding pulmonary tuberculosis. Improvement in knowledge was assessed by taking post-test after 5 days. This study concluded that planned teaching program is effective tool to improve the knowledge of clients regarding pulmonary tuberculosis.Keywords: Knowledge, clients, pulmonary tuberculosis, DOTS (directly observed treatment short-course), planned teaching programme.
Rewards are used as a tool for encouragement and inspiration by different organizations in order to increase their employeesâ€™ performance. This tool serves as a strong element for any organization which increases its strength and hence results in a proficiency in business market. In our study, we have developed a relationship between the company offered rewards and the performance of its employees with a deep insight about how the reward types are linked with the employeesâ€™ performance. Their motivation level has been focused here along with their turnover in the organization. The study showed that employees who have served for a longer period in a company develop a more specialized skill set which can be highly valuable for the company. Similarly, enthused employees are more likely to stay with the organization and thus provide favorable results. The main focus of the study was on the banking sector. The reward types and the performance enhancement were witnessed eventually. The focal point was to identify the effective mixes in banking sectors. A sample of size 200 was used in two banking organizations, which provided the required results in order to test the specified hypotheses.Keywords: Reward, Turnover, Performance.
The paper deals with the performance of the RC frame structure to calculate performance capacity of the RC frame. The existing octagonal shaped RC structural frame is modelled in STAAD Pro V8i software by considering dead load using IS 875 : 1964(Part-1), live load using IS 875:1964 (Part-2) and earthquake load using IS 1398:2002. The various combinations of loads were created using IS-456 and IS-1398. The frame performance is evaluated on the parameters like Bending moment, Shear force, axial force and storey drift for static elastic and inelastic conditions using Staad pro V8i and SAP 2000 respectively. The building is constructed in Bhopal city and hence as per the IS 1893:2002 seismic zone II and soft soil is considered for the performance analysis. The performance comparison of static elastic (Linear) and inelastic static performance (Non Linear) is made in this research paper.Keywords:
Kitchen waste is the best alternative for biogas production in community level biogas plant. It is produce when bacteria degrade organic matter in the absence of air. Biogas contains around 55-65% methane, 30-40% of carbon dioxide. The calorific value of biogas appreciably high. The gas can effectively be utilized for generation of power through a biogas based power generation system after dewatering and cleaning of the gas. In addition, the slurry produced in the process provides valuables, organic manure for farming and sustaining the soil fertility. Each of the biogas plant 2kg slurry capacity in batch system for all measurement. During the seperiod, the temperature, solar radiation and relative humidity have been measured. We have so analyzed the constituent of biogas, pH, volume and rate of biogas production at different level of temperature observation on daily basis. Here we also compare the rate of biogas production from kitchen waste with the other energy sources used for cooking purpose like LPG, Kerosene and coal.Keywords:
Traffic congestion problems are global that are observed in large cities due to many different reasons dependent case by case. Kabul city is suffering from this problem in various areas which have to be studies and estimated quantitatively. A main road (Pashtunistan- Airport) road was chosen in this study that has significance importance as it connects the Kabul city center with Kabul international airport, therefore, it has excessive traffic congestion. The traffic data was collected using video cameras at different locations at the road to calculate the traffic volume, average speed and average delay. Additionally, the congestion costs per day was estimated in terms of opportunity and fuel consumption costs due to the massive delays by traffic congestion. A stated preference survey was conducted at different organizations, business centers and common people that is located along the road using convenience survey that was analyzed with multinomial logistics regression model to determine the value of time. The results establish the traffic time and costs for the road that needs adequate travel time saving plan which can be accomplished by congestion relive action and efficient transport planning.Keywords: Kabul City, Traffic Congestion, Cost Estimation, Multi nominal Logit.