ijtrseditor@gmail.com   ISSN No.:-2454-2024(Online)

Volume 3 Issue VI

Author: Magdy F. Abadir, Nagwa M. El- Mansy, Manal A. Sorour, Sanaa A. Hassan
Organisation: Chemical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt, Food Engineering and Packaging Department, Food Tech. Res. Institute, ARC, Cairo, Egypt
Email: manal.sorour@yahoo.com
DOI Number: 10.30780/IJTRS.V2.I4.2018.004

Several activated carbon types were produced from peanut husk by using different activation methods and evaluated for removal of polyphenols. The best prepared activated carbon was utilized for removal of polyphenols from olive mills wastewater and the optimum conditions for adsorption process were determined. The adsorption data was correlated to Langmuir and Freundlich models. The results showed that activation of peanut husk using H3PO4 gives a highly porous activated carbon with a specific surface area 987 m2/g thus enhancing adsorption. The peanut husk based activated carbon- olive mills wastewater system fits to Freundlich isotherm model and adsorption kinetics fits to pseudo second order rate model.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, agricultural wastes, peanut husk, polyphenols.
Author: Asifah, Dilshada Wani
Organisation: Student,M.Sc.Medical Surgical Nursing,MMINSR SKIMS Soura Srinagar, India Tutor at Alamdar Memorial College of Nursing and Medical Technology,Islamic University of Science and Technology Awantipora Kashmir J&K India, Vice Principal and research guide MMINSR SKIMS Soura Srinagar, India
Email: asifah119@gmail.com
DOI Number: 10.30780/IJTRS.V3.I6.2018.001

Incentive spirometry is a method of deep breathing that provides visual feedback to encourage the patient to inhale slowly and deeply to maximise lung inflation and prevent or reduce atelectasis. In addition to preventing  post operative pulmonary complications, the Incentive spirometer can also help patients who have chronic lung diseases. Pulmonary complications are the most frequent cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality.Every surgical patient is at a risk of developing  postoperative pulmonary complications if not managed properly. Incentive spirometry (IS) is a technique that is both effective and appropriate for prophylactic bronchial hygiene. The nurses as well as nursing students are in close contact with the patients in the clinical areas. So it is important for the nursing students to know the  proper technique of incentive spirometry which they can teach  to patients to reduce the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications.

The study aimed at assessing  the level of knowledge and skill regarding Incentive spirometry among B.Sc nursing students before the administration of Skill Training  Programme (Pre – test), evaluating the effectiveness of skill training programme by comparing pre and post test score, to determine the relationship between knowledge and skill gain and to associate the pre test knowledge and skill score with selected demographic variables (age, gender, academic qualification, residence, parental income, basic concept of  incentive spirometry, source of information).

The study was conducted on Forty  3rd year B.Sc nursing students of Bibi halima college of nursing and medical technology who were selected by total enumerative sampling technique. A structured questionnaire and checklist was used to collect the data. After the pre test, Skill training programme was conducted. Post test was done after five days. The collected data was analysed using both  descriptive and inferential statistics.

The findings of the  study revealed  that the Skill training programme administered by the researcher was effective in enhancing the knowledge and skill of nursing students regarding incentive spirometry as the  mean post test knowledge and skill score of subjects was significantly higher than mean pretest knowledge and skill score. The mean pre test knowledge score was 17.23 which increased to 37.45 in the posttest showing an average increase of 20.23.while as the mean prê test skill score was 8.10 which increased to 19.20 showing an average increase of 11.10 (p < 0.001). Further, a statistically significant association was found between the pre test knowledge and skill score of subjects with some selected demographic variables i.e, residence and basic concept of incentive spirometry (p < 0.05 )  while as no association was found with other demographic variables i.e, age, gender, academic qualification, parental income and source of information (p >0.05).

Keywords: COPD, Incentive spirometry, Pulmonary complications, Skill training programme.
Author: Surendra Kumar
Organisation: PhD Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT, Jalandhar (PB), India
Email: surender10161007@gmail.com
DOI Number: 10.30780/IJTRS.V3.I6.2018.003

Today CNC plasma arc machines are used to cut metal plates in industry.  This technique use propane (C2H2) and oxygen (O2) gases for heating steel plats (760° C to 871° C), and it is able to cut metal plates at specific areas. Only straight path of the oxygen jet is affected during metal cutting process. This machine has high accuracy level, high finishing, and ability of machining any hard materials. Thus to produce intricate shape increases its demand in the market. Taguchi and Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) approach were used in CNC flame cutting process parameters optimization for AISI 206 steel. Taguchi and Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) approach are used in CNC flame cutting process parameters optimization for AISI 206 steel. The present research paper deals with the optimization of selected process parameters such as kerf and penetration by using inputs as Nozzle speed, Gas pressure, and Plate thickness. The experiments are conducted by using Taguchi L9 orthogonal array method and analysis was done by Minitab 17 software. Taguchi method, Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio between the input parameters and output responses are also predicted in this paper. Optimization results have been determined with the help of main effect plot and ANOVA table. ANOVA results presented that the pressure of gases and speed of nozzle are significant parameters for minimizing Kerf as well as for maximizing Penetration.

Keywords: AISI 206 steel, Kerf & Penetration optimization, ANOVA & Taguchi analysis, Machinability.
Author: Win Ei Ei Tun, Kyi Kyi Zin, Khin Mya Thwin
Organisation: Department of Chemical Engineering, Technological University, Thanlyin, Myanmar
Email: wineieitun@gmail.com
DOI Number: 10.30780/IJTRS.V3.I6.2018.004

Adobe bricks are prepared by mixing with rice husk ash (RHA) and soil for using in construction of low cost housing. The soil samples are taken from Shan Taè Gyi village, South Dagon Township and Danyingone Township in Yangon Division. Firstly, the physical and chemical properties of these soil samples and RHA are studied. And then, SEM is also used for studying morphology of these samples and RHA. For making adobe brick by using Shan Taè Gyi soil sample and RHA, RHA is added by 0, 3, 9 and 15% by total weight. In addition, water amount is added by 40 to 65 percentage of weight of the dry soil and the weight of straw 50 g for a brick. In testing process, adobe bricks are dried by means of solar energy and using dryer at a temperature of 40°C. The testing results are measured at 2 months for sun drying and 5 hr per day for 25 days in dryer drying according to weather conditions. In this study, 3% RHA content is also observed to be the appropriate content for compressive strength of adobe bricks. The compressive strength value of sun-dried adobe brick is 32 kg/cm2. Both linear shrinkage and unit weight of adobe bricks decreased with increase in the percentage of RHA content. The further study is carried out to make adobe brick by using Shan Taè Gyi soil and Danyingone soil samples mixing with RHA. In the present work, small cubic blocks and bars are made by adding various proportions of RHA; 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% by total dry weight of required sample. Then, cold crushing strength (CCS), flexural strength, linear shrinkage, bulk density and water absorption are investigated. The test results indicate that the optimum conditions are found at 3% RHA content for Shan Taè Gyi and at 9% RHA content for Danyingone soil sample in adobe brick preparation. The cold crushing strength of Danyingone soil sample is 112 kg/cm2. This adobe brick can be used in non-load bearing wall.

Keywords: adobe brick, cold crushing strength, flexural strength, linear shrinkage, rick hush ash.
Author: Dr. Sandhya Singh
Organisation: Assistant Professor of Sociology & Human values, JECRC, Jaipur, Rajasthan(India)
Email: sandhyasing14@gmail.com
DOI Number: 10.30780/IJTRS.V3.I6.2018.006

Prostitution is the act of engaging oneself in the sexual activities for payment. The person who engages himself is Prostitute. An old profession which have account since the birth of the organized society.It was seen that women’s indulging in this practices comes from poor background and who has no way of survival. When they come from the background from where they get less parental guidance, women’s indulged into the work of Prostitution. The problem of prostitution was faced both in ancient as well as modern India.

Prostitution as an institution is evil. It doesn't matter if it is the 'world's oldest profession', it is still wrong. But on the other side Society proclaims prostitution is a necessary evil in order to avoid rapes and unwanted sexual coercion. And also there are various laws in place to protect people from unwanted sexual coercion once they have clearly said "NO!"

In 1956, Immoral Traffic (Suppression) Act was passed, which ban the practices of prostitution in public but allowed it in the private. Also, Section 372 of Indian Penal code prohibits the selling of minor for the purpose of prostitution and Section 373 of Indian Penal Code prohibits the buying of minor for the purpose of prostitution. Through these points it is clear that Indian Law doesn’t illegalise the Prostitution, unlike United Kingdom, where it is illegal to pay for sex.

Keywords: Prostitution, Coercion, Immoral, Suppression.