The physical properties (pH, electrical conductivity, density, total suspended solids, refractive index, surface tension and moisture content) of different types of Egyptian honeys (black seed honey, clover honey, desert honey and mountain flower honey) were investigated. Honey samples each of volume 100ml. were adulterated with different volumes (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ml) of starch solution, glucose, molasses and distilled water respectively and were tested and compared to the pure sample. Rheological properties of pure Egyptian honey samples were compared to purchased and adulterated samples, the flow behavior index indicates that the samples exhibit shear thinning flow behavior and some were approximately Newtonian behavior. Apparent viscosity and shear stress of pure and purchased samples of all honey types studied were higher than the adulterated samples; the effect of adding different volumes of adulterants was also studied at different shear rates 1.1308, 5.6544, 11.3088 s-1, which revealed that apparent viscosity decreases as volume of adulterants increase for all the studied shear rates. The combined effect of shear rate and volume of adulterant on the shear stress was determined with data analysis.Keywords: Honey, physical properties, Rheology, surface tension and Adulteration.
In this presented work, we have studied the geo-effective characteristics of halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and examined their distribution over three kinds (Intense, moderate and weak) of geo-effective properties. For this study, we have selected the halo CMEs that were observed during the solar cycle 23, i.e. from 1996 to 2007. We selected three properties of CMEs viz. speed, acceleration and transit time and constructed several ranges. From our analysis showed that 60% of CMEs occur in the 500–1500 km s−1 category of CME speed. Similarly, 55% of CMEs are distributed over the range of 25–75 hours, of transit time while 60% of CMEs occur in the 0–20 m/s2 category of positive acceleration and 78% of CMEs occur in the 0–20 m/s2 category of negative acceleration of CMEs. We also investigated the geomagnetic effects of the selected Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) by considering the geomagnetic storms caused by them. The geomagnetic storms were divided into mainly three categories on the basis of the peak 𝐷𝑠𝑡 value, as weak (𝐷𝑠𝑡 > −50 nT), moderate (−100 nT < 𝐷𝑠𝑡 ≤ −50 nT) and intense (𝐷𝑠𝑡 ≤ −100nT). The highest numbers of intense storms were registered in the intermediate ranges of CME properties. Moreover, we have also found that decelerating CMEs produced significantly larger number of intense storms. Hence, more geo-magnetic storms occurred because of decelerating CMEs than the accelerating CMEs.Keywords: Halo CMEs; geomagnetic storms; geo-effectiveness.
Even though human were born and lived in noisy environments, we should not be ignorant of the effect of noise population and its hazardous effect on us which includes; temporal and permanent hearing loss, sleeping disturbance to mention but a few. Lack of recorded data on noise level from base transceiver station (BTS)/base
transceiver controller (BTC) in Wukari town inspired this study. This research measured the noise level from all BTS/BTC in Wukari town, during the day when the diesel generators are ON. The noise level recorded were compared to WHO 55dBA and NESREA 50 – 60 dBA during the day respectively. The noise levels recorded for the 22 BTS, shows that the noise level from all BTS/BTC when the diesel generator is ON, are all above the WHO/NESREA levels; for maximum level; location 22 at MDG Area Wukari have the highest average noise level
of 79.7dBA. On the minimum level, location 8 Old B.B Area Wukari have the least mean noise level during the day with 47.7 dBA, which is below WHO/NESREA minimum level. Therefore, calculating the mean noise level from minimum and maximum for each location, it shows again location 22 has the highest mean of 71.9 dBA. The least mean value is location 8 with 56.8 dBA. Hence, prolong exposure by residents of Wukari around the BTS/BTC whose generators are ON during the day will lead to induced hearing loss, sleeping disturbances and other hazards associated to continuous exposure to noise pollution. On the other when compared to when the generators are OFF, the noise pollution level were within the standard set for noise level during the day. Telecoms operators should explore others sources of energy to power their BTS/BTC in Wukari which have little or no noise such as Solar so that the risk of noise pollution may be reduced.
This investigation present the result of geophysical study carried out at Garin Mallum in Taraba State. The aim of the investigation is to determine the groundwater potentials of the area for the location of two productive hand pump boreholes for the community. Electromagnetic and Vertical electrical sounding method were used for the investigation using DDC-2B and YDD-B Terrameter respectively. Three geoelectrical layers were identified from the geo-electric characteristics of the area.
The groundwater potentials of the area have been inferred based on the obtained geoelectric response. VES 1 and VES 3 are considered to have the highest water bearing potentials within the area surveyed. They are therefore consequently recommended for the location of the hand pump boreholes.Keywords: Electromagnetic, Geology, Hydrogeology, Vertical Electrical Sounding and Geo-electric Properties.
3D printing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. In this process, an object is created by laying down successive layers of material until the object is created. Each of these layers can be seen as a thinly sliced horizontal cross-section of the eventual object. The printing process is done by using a 3D printer. It has several parts. They are frame, head movement mechanics, motors (stepper), the print head/extruder, firmware, 3D software etc. The aim of this work is to describe the design and construction process of a bowden extruder for 3D printer. In this case, it was used a RepRap (Replicating Rapid-prototyper) 3D printer of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology, where 3D models are built by heating and extruding thermoplastic material through a narrow nozzle. Easily maintainable and usable bowden extruder of FDM technology was designed and implemented on a 3D printer. The results are presented here. Two models of different material (ABS & PLA) were printed at different temperature (230oC & 185oC), when the bed temperature was fixed. It is observed that, the printer with this extruder prints the model almost accurately. Although, in some cases a deviation is observed at the thin and sharp edge of the model. A little wraping problem is also found occasionally.Keywords: Extruder, 3D Printer, Bowden Extruder, FDM, 3D Printing Technology.