Today world is facing the power crises due to more demand and less generation of electrical energy, so in that case in spite of the different schemes by the government to provide the electricity to the people of the remote areas there is very still and slows process. Imagine if we can able to generate the electrical energy in a small locality or at a small house itself than it will be a bit easier for us to access the electricity without taking help of the government. Project â€œSRAGENâ€ is a solution to that problem as in the project â€œSRAGENâ€ i.e. Steam recovery and generation of electrical energy, we have made a small working model of the steam power plant in which we have used a pressure cooker as a boiler to generate steam by the water which falls on a closed type turbine which attached to a machine to generate the electrical energy. The efficiency of the steam power plant will be improved by the steam recovery process.
This model will help the remote area people to do their little electrical work without the help of the government.Keywords: Electricity, SRAGEN, Steam generation.
In India, agriculture plays an important role for development in food production. In some countries, agriculture depends on the monsoon which is not sufficient source of water. Indiaâ€™s population is reached beyond 1.2 billion and the population rate is increasing day by day then after 25-30 years there will be serious problem of food, so the development of agriculture is necessary. In Irrigation system, depending upon the soil type, water is provided to plant. The main objective of this paper is to provide an automatic irrigation system which switches the pump motor ON/OFF on sensing the moisture content of the soil. The advantage of using this method is to reduce human intervention and still ensure proper irrigation thereby saving time, money, power of the farmer & optimise water use for agricultural crops. It uses a microcontroller which is programmed to receive the input signal of varying moisture condition of the soil through the sensing arrangement. This is achieved by using an op-amp as comparator which acts as interface between the sensing arrangement and the microcontroller. Once the controller receives this signal, it generates an output that drives a relay for operating the water pump. An LCD display is also interfaced to the microcontroller to display status of the soil and water pump. Network of soil-moisture and temperature sensors placed in the root zone of the plants. The automated system was tested in a sage crop held for 136 days and water savings of up to 90% compared with traditional irrigation practices of the agricultural zone were achieved. â€œAn automatic plant irrigation system â€œ, not only helps farmers but also others for watering their gardens as well.Keywords: Irrigation, LM7805 Regulator, Microcontroller, Soil Moisture Sensor.
Identification of astigmatid mites based on their morphological characteristics is difficult because of the similarity of their organs, especially in immature mites. The ribosomal second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit (COI) regions are usually used as barcodes. The ITS2 and COI regions of three species of astigmatid mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae,, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were obtained by polymerase chain reaction. The lengths of the ITS2 sequences varied from 310 to 482 bp, while the COI regions were 367or 368 bp long. The intra- and interspecific genetic distances were relatively smaller for the COI sequences than those for the ITS2 sequences. The genetic distances between species were obviously higher than those within species. In terms of ITS2 sequences, T. putrescentiae had the smallest intraspecific genetic distances.,whereas A. ovatus had the largest. D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus had the smallest interspecific genetic distances for ITS2 because they belong to the same genus. Differences in the ITS2 region were mainly found in terms of its length because of the deletions/ insertions of single nucleotides at several sites. Thus, the ITS2 and COI regions can be applied as barcodes to identify different species of astigmatid mites.Keywords: Astigmatid, Internal transcribed space (ITS).
Information divergence measures are well known in the literature of Information Theory and Statistics. Information divergence measures play an important role in pattern recognition and information retrieval. In this paper we will establish an upper and lower bounds of Relative Jenson-Shannon divergence, Relative arithmetic â€“geometric divergence, Kullback-Leibler divergence and Triangular discrimination in terms of Symmetric chi-square divergence measure using a new f-divergence measure and inequalities. Numerical bounds of well-known divergence measures are also studied.Keywords: Kullback-Leibler divergence measure, new f- divergence, Symmetric Chi-square divergence etc.
Electric power transmission systems are a key infrastructure and blackouts of these systems have major direct and indirect consequences on the economy and national security. Analysis of Electrical Reliability Council blackout data suggests the existence of blackout size distributions with power tails. This is an indication that blackout dynamics behave as a complex dynamical system. Here, we investigate how these complex system dynamics affects the assessment and mitigation of blackout risk. The mitigation of failures in complex systems needs to be approached with care. The mitigation efforts can move the system to a new dynamic equilibrium while remaining near criticality and preserving the power tails. Thus, In order to minimize the interruptions of power systems, it is crucially important to define the location of local generation and centralized load connection to be placed. Proper location of DGs in power systems is important for obtaining their maximum potential benefits as well as for backup purpose. By smartly applying future energy production, consumption and storage techniques, a more energy efficient electricity supply chain can be achieved using techniques like DGs and Smart Grid.Keywords:
The biotechnological potential of oyster mushrooms with lignocellulosic biomass has a great interest in research. Lignocellulolytic fungi, especiallyPleurotus species have attracted a great deal of interest as potential biomass degraders for large-scale biotecnnological applications due to their ability to produce vast amounts of valuable products and extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes. Agro-waste lignocellulosic biomass basically consists of 40 to 50% cellulose, 25 to 30% hemicellulose and 15 to 20% lignin materials which serve as major source of carbon and energy for Pleurotus species cultivation. Bioprocessing of plant byproducts using Pleurotus species provides numerous value-added products such as basidiocarps, animal feed, enzymes and other useful materials. The bioprocessing of lignin depends on the potent lignocellulolytic enzymes such as phenol oxidases (laccase), heme peroxidases, lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase produced by the organism.The cellulose-hydrolysing enzymes divided into endo-Î²-1,4-glucanase, exo-Î²-1,4-glucanase I and II, and Î²-glucosidase, they attack cellulose to release glucose. Several of these enzymes have reported having the ability to degrade and mineralize toxic chemicals, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), atrazine, organophosphorus and waste waters. The biodegradation and bioconversion of agro wastes (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose) could have vital implication in cleaning our environment. Lignocellulosic biomass is also used in biopopuling that is another industrial application which offers a particular acceptable alternative to search for virgin fiber in paper manufacturing.Keywords: Hemicellulose, Basidocarps, Organophosphorous,pleurotus.
With the high usage of Internet in our day to-day life, security of network has become the key foundation all web applications. Therefore every entity wants to protect its data from both internal and external attackers. Firewall, encryption, and authentication serve as the first line of security Intrusion Detection serves as the second line of security. An intrusion detection system (IDS) monitors networked devices and looks for malicious behavior so as to detect anomaly and misuse. Misuse detection is usually conducted by signature matching of known attacks. It effectively protect against common attacks but cannot detect â€˜newly inventedâ€™ attacks. Anomaly detection is generally based on machine learning but anomaly detection may have a higher rate of false positives.Keywords:
The main objective of this paper is to bring out a material used in the manufacture of the turbines which is less in cost, gives a long run and can withstand all the properties required in required condition. Here, we took three samples of materials that are used in the manufacturing of turbines, and performed Structural analysis on the material in simulation software. All the modelling process is carried out in CATIA v5 and simulation is done in ANSYS Mechanical Workbench.Keywords: Turbines, Structural analysis, simulation, CATIA v5, ANSYS.
In rustic India a lot of women spending some hours a day cooking over an indoor open stove is a regular practice. What these women fail to recognize is that there is a hidden killer in their kitchen of burning biomass fuels causes nearly 500,000 deaths each year in India alone. In our country residential sector is a major consumer of energy whose energy require will grow with prosperity and population growth. About 67% of households in India, which is equivalent to 166 million households, remain wedded to traditional bio fuels for cooking. Solid biomass fuels will continue to play a significant role in energy mix of households and use of traditional cookstoves for utilizing these fuels in them will remain an area of concern for years to come. â€œConventional Biomass Cookstoveâ€ is a physical structure that contains air-fuel ignition for heat release, and subsequently, directs the heat of ignition towards a cooking intention. The smoke emitted from such biomass Cookstove is made up of entirety suspended particulates and gaseous chemicals. The people in inaccessible and rustic areas cook their food on such poor thermal efficiency cookstoves that creates serious health problems for women and children. It was projected that about 3% of the diseases are caused due to partial combustion of biomass this results in around 1.6 million premature deaths every year including around 0.9 million children death. The scientific community around the globe is running on improving the cooking environment and has developed various models of improved biomass cookstoves. Apart from the type and eminence of the fuel used, intend of the cook stove chamber was the deciding factor for the associated emission causing by the fuel burning. Therefore, necessary to design and develop techno-economically feasible biomass cook-stove and civilizing the energy efficiency of biomass hygienic burning cook stoves, which potentially offers a highly cost-effective alternative for easing the burden of buying fuel by urban poor as well as rural population.Keywords: Biomass cookstoves, Eco-friendly stove, Energy, Low pollution, Policy.