PID controllers have played a great role in industry for controlling different plants with accuracy. Also, various PID control algorithms have been framed to ease its implementation and improve the response of the system. However, conventional manual tuning method have faced the problems of lesser precision and higher response time. Various automatic PID tuning methods have been designed to solve this control problem. Adaptive tuned PID is one of the most widely applicable techniques in controlling a plant output automatically to the desired set point with more accuracy and precision. This research is focused on designing a laboratory scale model for PID and Adaptive tuned PID controller for balancing a shaft with rotor mounted on its one end through brushless motor that illustrates the case of a conventional paper mill industry. The hardware implementation of the design is performed using an arduino uno microcontroller programmed with different algorithms designed for manual tuned PID with constant value, manual tuned PID with variable inputs from potentiometer and adaptive tuned PID controllers respectively. The output of the hardware is depicted on various graphs by importing data to LabVIEW Virtual Instrument. Various transient response characteristics of the designed laboratory model are depicted in the results including the rise time, peak time, overshoot, delay time, settling time and maximum overshoot. Also, a software implementation of the designed model is also performed in MATLAB Simulink for both manual and adaptive tuned PID controller. Finally, a comparative analysis of both the controllers is framed.Keywords: Adaptive PID; Rise time; Overshoot, Brushless motor; PID Tuning, Comparative Analysis.
The genus includes food crops; the tubers of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) and the leaves of water spinach (I. aquatica) are commercially important food items and have been for millennia. The water spinach (I. aquatica) commonly found in ponds, cultivated for stem and leaves used as vegetables.
The study of Anatomical as well as morphological character is the key aspect of various Classification systems which is the basic unit of Taxonomy.
The present study was conducted on the plant Ipomoea cairica from Aurangabad (MS) India, reports Morphology, Anatomy, Pollen Morphology, Stomatal Morphology, Trichome structure as well as Maceration study.Keywords: Ipomoea cairica, Taxonomy, Anatomy, Maceration, Acetolysis.
The present study investigates the educational choice in relation to academic stress, achievement motivation and academic self- concept among the adolescents of the intermediate or plus two stage in their academic career. Random sampling procedure was used to select the sample. One hundred and fifty students studying in the second year colleges of Trichy formed the sample. They were from four educational streams viz., Biology, Mathematics, commerce and humanities. There were 60 boys and 60 girls varying in age from 17 to 19 years. The results revealed that subjects from Biology stream had significantly more academic stress and commerce subjects exhibited low academic stress. In Biology group the interpersonal difficulties were found to be the major source of their academic stress. The medical stream also had a high need to achieve while the commerce grouped showed least achievement motivation. The four educational stream subjects did not vary in academic self- concept. No Significant gender differences were found in academic self –concept in the subjects of four educational streams.Keywords:
Presence of small features can cause significant amount of increase in the amount of meshing effort and computational expense. Small features increase the complexity of the physics considerably without appreciably increasing the stiffness of the structure. Small features can cause significant stress concentration requiring a local mesh refinement to match the small feature. While in ductile materials, the stress concentration can usually be ignored, this phenomenon requires a careful evaluation in brittle materials like cast iron. In such cases sub-modeling can be used effectively for simplification of the problem. A stress based approach may not be enough in this case and a fracture mechanics evaluation may be necessary. In this work, a method is devised to decrease the computational expense and also decrease the meshing effort. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated in a case study. Further, a fracture mechanics evaluation of the cast iron girder with a spherical void is carried out.Keywords: Sub modeling, small features, computational expense, void.
Bridges have been built since many years also box girder bridges are being constructed since the 1920s. Initially, only mild steel reinforced box girder bridges were used. But as the requirement of long spans box girders with minimum depths was arising, the use of high strength prestressing steel in the construction of box girders was started. The major work for prestressing or post-tensioning was done by Freyssinet (for internal prestressing). The use of external post-tensioning was evolved in the 1930s in Germany initially. External prestressing had been abandoned in late 1960's and early 1970’s, because of several drawbacks, the main one was corrosion of steel. The strengthening capabilities of external tendons became the reason for its re-introduction in late 1970’s. In this study, an effort is done to briefly explain the procedure for the design of box girders with internal and external prestressing systems. Also, the cost of the two systems is compared for different spans considering stress limitations and serviceability criteria. This has been done by modeling box girders with spans ranges from 30m to 90m and for the span to depth ratios of 15, 20 and 25. In general, this study quantitatively indicates the prestressing force required for the two systems.Keywords: Prestressing, Internal & External Prestressing, Post-tensioning, Box Girder.
In software engineering modularization is way to divide software project in to multiple independent and discrete modules. After complete module conquers make as software. Means modules design use divide and conquer rule. Cohesion and Coupling measure the quality of design of modules and interaction between modules. In this paper studies have been done to identify complexity between inheritance and interface by applying the cohesion and coupling metrics.Two program of c# implementing one with inheritance and other with interface are taken and measurement is done. The metrics value obtained is compared to prove which concept is good and beneficial for c# developer to use.Keywords: cohesion, coupling, modularization, inheritance, interface.
Liposomes can be described as artificially made vesicles composed of one or more phospholipid bilayer(s). They are being used to encapsulate different material including medicinal and nutritional compounds as well as cosmetic and diagnostic agents. Recently, liposomes have also been employed for the entrapment and delivery of a number of different trace elements (e.g. selenium), divalent cations (such as calcium and magnesium) and metal nanoparticles. Because of their unique optical and physical properties, silver and gold nanoparticles are widely used in many fields as ideal materials for labelling, imaging, and sensing. This review article addresses the use of liposome-encapsulated silver and gold nanoparticles in targeting drugs and diagnostic agents with reduced cytotoxic effects in patients with various cancers and many other diseases.Keywords: Cancer, diagnosis, encapsulation, gold nanoparticle, liposome, nanosilver, selenium.
Nanographite reinforced silicon elastomer nanocomposites were prepared. The morphology of nanocomposite samples have been studied from scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs. It shows excellent distribution of nanographite in the silicon matrix. The effect of nanographite loadings (2, 4, 6, 8 parts per hundred parts of rubber) on mechanical properties like hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus (100%, 200%, 300%) have been studied. The study shows increase in tensile strength, hardness and modulus and decrease in elongation at break with nanographite loading. Dynamic mechanical properties of nanocomposites have been studied as a function of temperature (-100 to 100oC) at a constant frequency 1Hz and strain 1%. The effect of nanographite loadings on storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangent has also been studied. The non-linearity in tan delta, storage modulus and loss modulus was explained on the basis of nanographite elastomer interaction. The smooth cole-cole plots explain the non-linearity in the elastomer nanocomposites as well as good distribution of nanographite in the elastomer matrix. The effect of nanographite loading on cole-cole plots is explained on the basis of relaxation phenomenon. The phenomenon of percolation has been discussed, based on the measured changes in electric conductivity and dielectric permittivity. The percolation threshold occurred in the range of 6 phr of nanographite loading.Keywords: elastomer, nanocomposite, modulus, dynamic mechanical, conductivity, percolation.
Psychology of a criminal or Criminological psychology is basically a study of wills, thoughts, emotions and reactions of criminals and how these affect their behavior. A person is not a criminal by birth, but there are so many factors or situations which force an individual to become a criminal. Different researchers attributed different theories on what makes the person a criminal. Different psychological theories of crime found on the first hand knowledge or experience are abundant; they are mainly due to racism or prejudice, genetically oriented criminal mind set up etc. – all these affecting factors are put forth by various investigators based on their scientifically explored studies. This article presents a short review on different factors affecting the behavior of a person which lead him/her to commit a crime. Different databases were searched for relevant references and each study was properly compared against the inclusion criteria, prior to selection and data were analyzed. The review concluded that apart from the environmental and social factors, psychopathy affected more the behavior of an individual and made the person violent/aggressive thus guided the individual to become a criminal.Keywords: Criminal, Psychological, Psychopathy, Juvenile, Reactive, Proactive.
Cone snails are slow-moving marine gastropods under the phylum molluscs. They are carnivorous and use venom to kill their prey. The venom of cone snails consists of most complex mixtures of toxins in the animal kingdom. These toxins are mostly peptidic in nature and so they are called as conopeptides or conotoxins. Such a small droplet of this venom causes a great damage to its prey and the same impressive destructive power of venoms has been turned into a life-saving drugs. One such molecule, ω-conotoxin is now an FDA-approved drug to treat chronic pain, for cancer and post-surgical pain. In addition, several other cone snail compounds are being investigated for the treatment of neuropathic pain, epilepsy, cardiac infarction, and neurological diseases. Conotoxins, rich in di - sulfide bonds are small peptides of 10 to 35 residues has high and specific effect on various receptors in pain pathway, voltage or ligand gated ion channels and nerve transmission. Due to these properties conotoxins have been used as molecular tool in the study of ion channels and receptors and as potential pharmaceuticals.Thus, conus venoms are now regarded as pharmacological treasures leading to drug discovery.Keywords: cone snails, conus venom, conotoxins, conopeptides, ion channels.
Malnutrition is a pathological state resulting from a relative or absolute deficiency or excess of one or more essential nutrients. Malnutrition is one of the vital health and welfare problems facing Pakistan today. School age is the vibrant period of physical and mental development of a child. The health problems due to poor nutritional status are among the common causes of low school enrolment, high absenteeism and unsatisfactory academic performance. This survey was conducted to determine the frequency of Malnutrition and related risk factors among Children of class I (6 - 7 years of age) in Wah Cantt. A Cross-sectional study was conducted among children of public sector schools of Wah Cantt from Sep. 2013 to Feb. 2014. Two hundred and seventy children of Class I, aged six to seven years of any gender from six public sector schools of Wah Cantt were included in the study by simple random technique. After taking verbal consent, information regarding different demographic variables was obtained. The height and weight was measured and frequency of overweight, underweight, stunting and wasting was calculated. Results were statistically analyzed using SPSS 19.0. Chi-Square test was applied to find out the significance of association between risk factors and malnutrition. Out of 270 children there were 105 boys and 165 girls. The mean age was 76.5 + 4.44 months. The overall frequency of children having different categories of malnutrition was 138 (51.1 %); 10 (3.7 %) underweight, 1(0.4 %) stunted, 33 (12.2 %) wasted, 3 (1.1 %) overweight, 73 (27 %) underweight & wasted, 14 (5.2 %) underweight, wasted & stunted, 4 (1.5 %) underweight & stunted and 132 (48.9 %) were normal. Frequency of malnutrition was more among boys as compared to girls (p-value 0.048). A significant inverse relationship was found between mother's education and frequency of underweight and stunting among children (p-value 0.05). The association of malnutrition with family income, family size, fathers’ education and mothers’ occupation was statistically insignificant.Keywords: Malnutrition, Overweight, Underweight, Stunting, Wasting.