Monitoring, operation and controls of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) is a complex and challenging task. The power equipment in most of the existing or old WWTPs, that generates electricity from biogas produced in the water treatment process, requires intensive supervision and control to enable failsafe and redundant electricity cogeneration process. This research focuses on setting up an effective communication system between power equipment at WWTP distribution substations and power company`s zone substation. The required philosophy is developed in order to achieve an automated and failsafe communication network for SCADA link to enable WWTP electricity cogeneration utilising exiting or old infrastructure. This critical multidirectional power and data flow requires proper standard compliant and semantic data models to guarantee smooth and safe operation. It also needs flexibility and ability to develop and implement the telemetric mapping philosophy between the substations during various scenarios of electricity cogeneration and faults. This research has resulted in a proposal of smart remote terminal units (RTUs) on existing or old infrastructure of WWTP. They aim to provide a platform for remote data collection, to and from the power network equipment, thus reducing or eliminating any unsupervised functions on site. The proposed design is IEC standards compliant for optimised remote control and performance monitoring with any Human Machine Interface (HMI) of a remote substation. The research was carried out using least cost, technically acceptable principles at Melbourne Water Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP), which is the largest treatment facility in the southern hemisphere.Keywords: Communication redundancy, electricity cogeneration, HMI and SCADA, smart RTU, wastewater management.
Recognising the deep potential in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) automation strategies, this paper focuses on expanding the plant operations in order to optimally utilise biogas production during the water treatment process to achieve electricity cogeneration and achieve High Voltage/ Low Voltage (HV/LV) redundancy. The research has resulted in a proposed design of a smart Remote Terminal Unit (RTU). The philosophy provides proper telemetric signal monitoring, enables two-way power flow and reduces intertripping downtime between WWTP distribution and the power company`s zone substations enabling a failsafe mechanism at different levels of water treatment process and biogas production, thus facilitating an automated WWTP electricity cogeneration. The proposed design also increases the life span of substations, reduces power demand load on the grids and enhances safety of WWTPs equipment during various scenarios of electricity cogeneration, shut downs and maintenance operations.Keywords: biogas, cogeneration, electricity, health and safety, power management, remote terminal unit, smart grid, Wastewater treatment plant.
Proper watershed management is a pre-requisite to efficient water use in an area. For this purpose suggesting proper water harvesting sites and demarcation of their catchment area is required. Therefore, an area with a very undulating topography in the Morni Hills of Haryana was selected. The aim of the present study is to calculate catchment area for suggesting water harvesting sites using RS and GIS techniques by integrating various thematic information. The sub watershed comprises of rocky surface and several types of faults and fractures. Use of remote sensing data along with GIS, topographical maps, collateral information and limited field checks, has opened new avenues and made it easier to establish the base line information for water harvesting zones. ARCGIS 10 and ERDAS IMAGINE 11 softwareâ€™s were used for analysing and interpretation of remote sensing data. About 88 water harvesting sites were suggested by overlaying several maps viz. LU/LC, contour, slope, geology and geomorphology, drainage network, stream order, road network and groundwater quality. Based upon the specific criteria provided in the literature various water harvesting structures Nala bund (17), Check dam (12), Inverted/Recharge well (18), Desilting tank (2), Recharge pit (1), Storage tank (38) etc. were suggested on identified WH sites. Results show that about 15.28 kmÂ² area contribute direct runoff towards suggested WH structures. Out of this catchment area contributing water towards Nala bund, Check dam, Inverted/Recharge well, Desilting tank, Recharge pit, Storage tanks is 11.02%, 0.35%, 15.51%, 72.99%, 0.05% and 0.08%, respectively.Keywords: DEM, Land use/land cover, stream order, WH site & structure.
Here in this paper, we have discoursed the necessity of entrepreneurial education for the entrepreneurship growth. A most important part of the entrepreneurial environment is culture/morals and education. Education should be accepted in this way that not only it is significant for the young student rather it is also compulsory for highly schooled adults. We argued here the urgency of education to start a small business, in India. To start a new concept, launching a new product, advance the marketing strategies how proper knowledge is required. Vocational education, managerial training, economic awareness, political issues, social opportunities, etc. can help to produce faster entrepreneurial development.Keywords: Education in India, Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship in India, development.
The development of watershed aims at productive utilization of all the available natural resources in the entire area extending from ridge line to stream outlet. Remote sensing and GIS techniques are being increasingly used for planning, management and development of watersheds. Estimation of surface water runoff is critical to the management of sub-watersheds. In the present study, Soil Conservation Servicesâ€“Curve Number (SCS-CN) method has been applied for estimation of surface water runoff for Morni Sub-watershed in Shivalik hills of Himalaya. Various parameters such as land use/land cover (LU/LC), soil texture, rainfall, geology and hydrological soil group (HSG) were used to compute runoff using this equation. Curve Number (CN) selection is related to soil type, soil infiltration capability and land use/land cover (LU/LC). The areas of different land use/land cover and soil combinations were obtained and accordingly different CN values were assigned as per NRSC Hydrological Soil Group (HSG) classification. Thus weighted CN for whole sub watershed was calculated and found to be 59.78. Based upon 5-days (13-17 June, 2015) antecedent rainfall period, the CN for Antecedent Moisture Condition (AMC-III) was determined by using a conversion factor as suggested by Suresh, 1997 (Soil and Water Conservation Engineering).Using this CN value, Potential Maximum Soil Retention (S) was calculated as 71.64 mm In order to account for water losses occurring due to plant interceptions, infiltration and surface storage which occur prior to runoff, Initial abstraction â€˜Iaâ€™ was calculated as 0.2 times of potential storage. The calculated value of S in combination with six years (2008-2013) annual rainfall (P) data was further used to estimate soil runoff from SCS equation. Result showed that the surface runoff volume (Q) is directly proportional to the annual rainfall (P). Coefficient of determination was found to be 0.90 for the study area which reveals a very linear relationship between rainfall and runoff. Six year (2008-2013) average annual rainfall of 720.68 mm produces a discharge runoff of 641.94 mm. It was concluded that a large amount of total rainfall i.e. about 89% goes untapped and waste as a surface runoff in Morni sub watershed.Keywords: Surface runoff, Watershed, Geo-informatics, SCS-CN.
Supermarket is a business enterprise that provides a service to customers. It does not produce a physical product of its own in the usual sense. Instead, it adds value by acquiring existing products from remotely-located suppliers, assembling them in regional warehouses, distributing them to local stores, and finally selling the supplierâ€™s products to local customers. The customer attitude towards supermarket is strongly influenced by the absence or presence of certain elements like location, infrastructures and amenities, ambience, merchandising and pricing, entertainment value and personal value. The present study focuses that purchasing behavious of consumer in Salem district. This study suggests that customer satisfaction has an important role and therefore the retailer shop is the much all types of goods available in favorable to customer preference. The super markets much need service and quality.Keywords: Super Market, Purchasing Behavior and Customer Satisfaction.
Experiments were conducted to study the effect of various pretreatments on quality attributes of dried turnip slices after convective drying. Investigations were also carried out to evaluate the quality of dried slices before and after storage in various packaging materials. Turnip of uniform shape and size were sliced into thickness of 5 mm using food processor. Pretreatments namely, blanching, KMS (0.50%) and KMS (0.50%) plus citric acid (0.25%) were given to the samples prior to dehydration. Pretreated slices were dried in convective dryer at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 Â°C. Dried slices were then packed in various packaging materials namely LDPE, PVC and HDPE pouches and stored at room temperature. Results of the revealed that slices pretreated with combination of KMS plus citric acid and dried at 40 Â°C yielded maximum rehydration ratio as compared to those of other pretreatments and drying temperatures. Minimum browning index was obtained in case of samples pretreated with combination of blanching, KMS and citric acid and dried at 40 Â°C temperature. Rehydration ratio and sensory score decreased while browning index increased with storage period irrespective of pretreatments, temperature and packaging materials.Keywords: Convective drying, Pretreatments, Turnip, Packaging material.
Information and communication technology (ICT) has become one of the basic building blocks of the post modern era. Almost all countries now consider understanding ICT and mastering the fundamental skills and concepts of ICT as part of the core of education. The aims of UNESCO is to guarantee that all the countries who are either developed or developing have access to the best educational facilities required to organize young people to play the vital roles in modern era and to contribute to a knowledge to the nation on whole. Information and communication technology is the advanced technology in science which deals wholly and solly with the purpose of education and its other aspects in different levels of education at senior and secondary levels. It is the wider concept in educational technology and is one of the most important applications of technology which aims at building and covering the basic tenants of senior and secondary education. It is widely used by almost all countries as a part and parcel of their curriculum in enhancing the educational system of the senior and secondary level. This paper throws light on information and communication technology as a best tool widely used in the levels of senior and secondary levels of education in developed and developing countries and also this paper shows the need and importance of information and communication technology in todayâ€™s education as well as in society.Keywords: Information and Communication Technology, Society, Education, Modernism etc.
World has a rich biodiversity and harbours a wealth of useful germplasm resources and there is no doubt that the plant kingdom and animal kingdom is a treasure-house of diverse natural products. One such product from nature is dye. Dyes are aromatic organic compounds which induce color to the substrate by showing affinity towards it. Natural dyes are derived from naturally occurring source such as plants, insects, animals and minerals. This review is done to focus plants on natural dyes for textiles products and the plants which yield colors that can be used as natural dyes with some technical methods. As synthetic dyes develop several kinds of pollution in the environment. Likewise synthetic dyes or colourants have been banned because they cause allergical symptoms or carcinogenics. In recent years synthetic dyes though they have good aesthetic dyeing ability but the hazards caused by them have made awareness among society to look for the betterments in natural dyes as natural dyes are non-allergic, non-toxic and eco-friendly.Keywords: Dye yielding plants, Mordant, Natural dyes, Colorants, Textile.
The various activities of tourism attract people to the new destinations due to several factors and act as a source of income for local community. Tourism plays a significant role in society benefit and increasing economic state which can erradicate poverty to some extent. Tourism act as an important phenomenon in socio-economic progress at KNB circuit through the creation of employment & helps in the preservation of Braj Heritage.
The main purpose of this study is to examine the socio-economic impact of tourism on local community at KNB circuit. The study establishes that local people have positive attitude towards tourism development indicators and considering it as an important economic barometer.Keywords: KNB circuit, Local community, Socio- economic impact, Tourism Development.