All people and well being of a nation depend upon sustainable development, and for this, water supply and sanitation are essential requirements. Today Lack of sanitation and hygiene is a big problem in many developing and emerging economies . We go to the toilet about six to eight times a day. We cannot imagine not having a toilet when we need to use one. Yet despite all the progress in human development, 2.6 billion people - about 40% of mankind - still do not have access to proper sanitation. Each year, 1.5 million children under the age of five die of diarrhoea caused by unsanitary conditions and poor hygiene. When open defecation is the common practice, the flies spread diseases from the waste to the food. Sanitation and hygiene are the cheapest and most effective preventive medicines for the poor. Sanitation refers to the safe disposal of human excreta. Sanitation affords many health benefits, both in the narrow sense of disease avoidance and in the wider sense of enhanced psychological and physical well-being. Yet globally 2.6 billion people still lack access to improved sanitation This fact sheet gives a brief overview of the many factors and lots of disease categories associated with sanitation. Followed by an exploration of the varying factors affecting the potential health impact of sanitation.Keywords: Sanitation, potential.
The modern power system introduces a new Distributed Generation (DG) technology in restructured power system. It plays an important role in distribution system and participates in market to provide ancillary services. They are small power generation technologies are integrated in distribution system to compensate the load demand. Inappropriate DG integration can result into maximization of power loss. Therefore, optimal location and size of DG installation in distribution system should be found before its integration. In this paper, distribution system load flow is performed using repeated load flow (RLF) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for IEEE 12-bus test system. These techniques are used to find out the optimal location and sizing of DG in distribution network which minimizes the power loss. The line loss reduction index (LRII) is also described which aids in lowering the power loss with the help of DG. With both techniques, the optimal location is bus-9 leads to reduction in power loss up to 43.36% with RLF and 43.44% with PSO. These results are obtained using MATLAB 13.0 and are found to be nurturing. The installation of DG unit in distribution system provides a better power quality in an electrical distribution system.Keywords: Distributed Generation (DG); Distribution System; Power Loss; Optimum Location.
Critical land resource parameters like soil, water, flora and fauna are crucial which influence the basic survival of human beings by supporting food production and providing a congenial living environment. As anthropogenic and natural forces impact the landscape, resource agencies find it increasingly important to monitor and assess these alterations. Changes in vegetation affect wildlife habitat, fire conditions, aesthetic and historical values and ambient air quality. These changes, in turn, influence management and policy decisions. Concern for environment has become paramount in todayâ€™s perspective as so much is changing so fast and watershed identification and planning could be one of the prime movers in this direction for judicious environmental planning.Keywords:
Today the whole world is undergoing a transformational changes and adjustments because of problem of global warming and continuously increasing production of organic wastes,which necessitate a entire world shift towards the sustainable growth. Indiaâ€™s development, desires the unique growth of energy sector over the next decade. There is also a vital requirement of energy security. In India 60 % peopleâ€™s livelihood relies on the farming sector and the majority of the people lives in rural areas. Numerous of the villages are distantly situated and the connectivity with the power grid for these remote area villages is very complex which resulting in lack of uninterrupted power supply. For the progress of this region, there is a need for the expansion of Renewable energy sources of energy. In this paper a case study of Indian village â€œBholanaâ€ has been taken to make it self sustainable. A comphrehensive survey of village is done to access the available renewable resources. The modelling of Hybrid Optimization Model (biomass/biogas + solar) is done with the use of (HOMER) software. This Hybrid renewable energy model is more suitable forthis village where grid expansion is considered too costly. This paper explains theconsumption of renewable energy sources in a sustainble way for the remote areas and making the village self sustainble in its energy needs.Keywords: HOMER, hybrid system, biogas, solar,biomass,renewable.
The issue of global warming and energy deficit leads the state government of Punjab to take major steps in the favor of renewable resources. The smart home energy system is introduced as the major step for encourage the use of these renewable resources. The concept can be implemented to every household which results in clean and sustainable future. The government policy like roof top PV and incentives also motivate this concept. In this paper, the solar PV is used as renewable resource is integrated with power grid to reduce greenhouse gases and dependability on it. The whole design of this concept is simulated using homer software. The various configurations are simulated by the HOMER and best configuration selected on the basis of its cost effectiveness.Keywords: homer; micro grid; renewable energy; roof top PV; smart home.
Information and divergence measure are very useful and play an important role in many areas like as Sensor Networks , Testing the order in a Markov chain , Risk for binary experiments, Region segmentation and estimation  etc. In this paper we establish an upper and lower bounds of Relative arithmetic-geometric divergence, Relative J-divergence, Jenson-Shannonâ€™s divergence, Triangular discrimination, Unified Relative Jensen-Shannon and arithmetic-geometric divergence of types etc. in terms of Chi-square divergence using a new f-divergence measure and inequalities.Keywords: Chi-square divergence, Jenson-Shannonâ€™s divergence, Triangular discrimination etc.
Every serious signal has a correct away impact in healthcare, so body sensors are charity for endless healthcare checking. Now current techniques, sensors are fixed by the single person and the sensor indicators are shifted through PDA (non-public digital assistant) and protected inside the health server. In this proposed method scheme is for condition center environments the health care doctors and nurses can get pass to the personâ€™s technical truths from the server. The wearable sensors used in the patients frame is connected to an arduino board the detected data are passed by the way of relay node and it stored inside the cloud. The Medical specialist doctors and nurses can contact the patientâ€™ data from the cloud.Keywords: loud computing, BSN, healthcare.
The Photo Voltaic (PV) energy system, used in this project, is a very new concept in use, which is gaining immense popularity due to increasing system importance to research on alternative sources of energy over depletion of the conventional fossil fuels all around the world. Total systems which are being developed extract energy from the sun in the most efficient manner and suit them to the local available loads without affecting their performance. There is a strong trend in the photovoltaic (PV) inverter technology to use without transformer topologies in order to acquire higher efficiencies combining with very low ground leakage current. a new topology, based on the H Bridge with a new AC bypass circuit consisting in a output diode rectifier and a switch with clamping to the DC midpoint is proposed. The proposed topology is simulated and experimentally validated and comparison with other existing topologies is performed. Mainly High conversion efficiency and low leakage current is demonstrated. For the current controller a ramp time zero average current error control algorithm combined with a system optimized cyclic switching sequence is suggested. Simulation results have been presented to demonstrate the suitability of the control method. Simulation results exhibits improved performance under the system presence of harmonics and the studied system is modeled and simulated in the MATLAB/Simulink.Keywords: Maximum power point Tracking, H6 Topology, DC-DC Buck Boost, and MATLAB.
The key objective of our system design is to provide easy means for normal, handicapped and old age persons control and operate home appliances. Since home automation is gaining popularity day by day in todayâ€™s world, we require a system which is affordable and simple to implement. Both these qualities are present in our designed system which has the capability to replace existing technologies. Practical voice recognition kit is utilized in order to store and recognize the userâ€™s voice. Moreover, this system also helps in efficient use of the electricity which is an important constraint in day to day life.Keywords: Home automation, Microcontroller, Voice Recognition (HM2007), Power Supply.
In the present scenario of dynamic growth in higher education, increasing drop out ratio in IITs has raised concern over the quality of education provided during high school (10+2) education. This study is influenced by a general observation that the efforts students put in 10+2 classes to reach their goal (short term) of getting admission into top rated engineering institutions of the country, they are not able to repeat it in college education. Impact of several factors due to the studentâ€™s poor performance in higher education relative to their performance in high school education has been studied. This study was conducted among 144 engineering students of First and Second Year who have come from different regions of the country. The study was based on ranking approach, in which total 10 factors affecting the performance in higher education were identified. The ranking of these 10 factors was further analyzed through Graph analysis and Rank Correlation Coefficient. Factors such as Changed environment comparative to 12 years long school education, Complexities regarding syllabus and Pressure of entrance examinations in addition to board examinations, are emerged as the major factors affecting the studentâ€™s performance in higher education.Keywords: Higher Education, High School Education, Rank Correlation Coefficient.
During the last decade, the renewable power sources such as photovoltaic (PV) modules are growing fast as an effective and cheap energy source. It is a crucial issue to integrate PV into the grid. In this paper, a control model for integration of PV system into the grid and the effectiveness of the PI controller in the system under different levels of solar irradiation are presented. An MPPT module with PI control developed in this work that is felicitous for power applications program; however, the problem of integration of PV is that it relies heavily on weather conditions. So, there is a necessity for developing control techniques for grid integration PV system including a method for voltage and current control that stabilises the voltage and current. An MPPT algorithm using DC/DC converter (Boost converter) is applied to make PV arrays to work at maximum power point. Then, the system behaviour and performance are studied. The system stability is also considered when there is a change in solar irradiation or a fault in the system. The simulation results of MATLAB/SIMULINK address that the proposed PI controller has a good performance.Keywords: MATLAB/SIMULINK, Photovoltaic (PV, Maximum power point tracking (MPPT), Boost converter DC/DC, PI controller, the utility grid