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[email protected]   ISSN No.:-2454-2024(Online)

Volume 4 Issue XII

IJTRS-V4-I10-005 :- VALUATION OF AWARAN, BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN, EARTHQUAKE: HAZARD ASSESSMENT AND MITIGATION
Author: Shafi Muhammad, Lamiya, Romana Iftekar, Ibrahim Baloch, Waseem Khan, Habib Sumalani, Asiyah Bizinjo
Organisation: 1School of Earth Science and Resources, State Key Laboratory, China University of Geosciences Beijing, 100083, China 2Department of Geography University of Balochistan Saryab Road, Quetta 3Department of Geology, University of Balochistan Saryab Road, Quetta 4School of Earth Science and Geological Engineering, Guangdong, China 5Ministry of Mine and Minerals Dalbandine, Chagai, Balochistan 6Department of Sociology University of Karachi, Sindh
Email: [email protected]
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.30780/IJTRS.V04.I12.001
Abstract:

The Balochistan province is saturated south west part of Pakistan, 24 September 2013 the 7.7- magnitude earthquake hit on Thursday afternoon at the depth of 20km (13 miles) north-east of district Awaran, Balochistan, Pakistan, the Geological Survey of United State (USGS). The Awaran district were completely demolished by the earthquake there were approximately 825 people killed several were injured and the many houses were totally flattened. This research has created on the assessment of Provincial Disaster Management Authority’s (PDMA) responses to Awaran earthquake and the awareness of effected families, 20 locals of Awaran has been interviewed which their opinions were designated for this research. The analysis over the interviewed discloses that most of the people were satisfied from the PDMA’s or any other response over the Awaran earthquake.

Keywords: Awaran Earthquake, Hoshab fault, Makran Accretionary Zone, Subduction Zone, Tectonic, Hazard.
IJTRS-V4-I11-017 :- DEVELOPMENT OF A BLIND HOLE SUBSTRATE SLOTTED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR X-BAND APPLICATIONS
Author: Aminu Atiku Shehu, Zainab Yunusa, Mohd Nizar Hamidon, Abdullahi Auwal Gabari, Zainab Umar Sani
Organisation: Department of Electrical Engineering, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.30780/IJTRS.V04.I12.002
Abstract:

This paper is aimed at developing a blind hole substrate slotted microstrip patch antenna for x-band applications. The proposed antenna has been designed using Roggers RT5880 (lossy) substrate of dielectric constant of 2.2 sandwiched between copper patch and ground plane. The propounded antenna has been devised and simulated in CST Microwave Studio 2014. This antenna resonates at frequency of 10.45 GHz with the minimal return loss of -55.30 dB, high gain of 8.02 dB and directivity of 8.50 dBi. The proposed antenna works for all frequencies from 8 – 12 GHz resulting in a huge bandwidth of 1.1 GHz (9.99 GHz - 11.09 GHz). Bandwidth enhancement of 50 percent is observed in the proposed antenna as compared to the existing antenna. The proposed antenna provides this huge bandwidth with a compact size. The designed antenna can be suitably employed for all X-Band (8-12 GHz) applications including Radar and satellite communications, weather monitoring, military communications, satellite to earth downlink, earth to satellite uplink, radio determination and ultra-wide band applications.

Keywords: blind hole substrate; huge bandwidth; high gain; Earth–satellite uplink; Satellite-earth downlink; X-band; wide-band antenna and slot.
IJTRS-V4-I11-019 :- STUDY OF DEMOLITION AND ITS RECENT ADVANCEMENTS
Author: Rahul Bharti, Vikas Prabhakar
Organisation: Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida (UP), India
Email: [email protected]
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.30780/IJTRS.V04.I12.003
Abstract:

Generally, structure is designed for a specific life period, around 100 years. The existence of the structure after the service life period is very dangerous to its residents and surrounding buildings. Therefore, it becomes essential to demolish the building. In developed nations demolition is fundamental for the advancement of new structures for different l purposes. Any sort of destruction work needs multiple resources for executing the work. Today different sorts of demolition strategies are available, however, the technique for demolition work differs with the site condition and cost. The demolition technique likewise changes with the time accessible for destruction and need of site leeway for the new structure. The utilization of techniques for destruction depends upon real site conditions and accessible space. The destruction innovation is drilled to destroy the solid structures in a controlled manner particularly in Indian conditions. The significant strategies rehearsed in this field are referenced. Destruction is the intentional obliteration of structures and materials by methods for explosives, mechanical aid, fire, chemical aid, etc.

Keywords:
IJTRS-V4-I12-003 :- INDIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEMS – A REVIEW
Author: Vishal Kumar Parashar,Aditya Singh
Organisation: Aravali Institute of Technical Studies, Udaipur, Raj. (India)
Email: [email protected]
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.30780/IJTRS.V04.I12.004
Abstract:

The paper presents actual knowledge concerning the indirect evaporative cooling (IEC). This cooling technology is promising to develop in the near future due to its very low energy consumption and high efficiency in its range of applications. The review is presenting in details: theory, wor`king principles, flow and construction. The IEC equipment and technology is suitable in different air conditioning applications: commercial, industrial, residential or data centres. The IEC technology is completely environmental friendly and has very low global warming impact. The single disadvantage of IEC is the water consumption. The environmental impact associated to the use of energy from conventional fossil origin, the energetic and economic dependency on non-renewable sources, lead to the necessity of reducing the energy consumption, maintaining the current targets and necessities of each activity that require the use of energy The phenomenon of evaporative cooling is a common process in nature, whose applications for cooling air are being used since the ancient years. In fact, it meets this objective with low energy consumption, being compared to the primary energy consumption of other alternatives for cooling, as it is simply based in the phenomenon of reducing the air temperature by evaporating water on it. This process can be an interesting alternative to conventional systems in these applications where not very low temperatures are needed, like the case of air-conditioning during the summer. In this paper various types of direct and indirect cooling methods are reviewed to understand the various ways to attain cooling by these methods and provide alternative.

Keywords: Indirect Evaporative Cooling, Seeback- PetlierEffect, Heat Exchangers.
IJTRS-V4-I12-022 :- HYBRID ALGORITHM FOR UNDERWATER IMAGE ENHANCEMENT
Author: Shahnaz Khan, Dr. Mayank Patel, Manish Tiwari
Organisation: CSE Department, GITS, Udaipur, Rajasthan (India)
Email: [email protected]
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.30780/IJTRS.V04.I12.005
Abstract:

As Computer & Internet Proliferation is encompassing every aspect of human life, the data collected by computer systems is growing rapidly. Traditional methods of data access cannot be used efficiently on large data, thus data mining is one of the most sought areas of research in computer sciences. With the growing data, requirement of anytime anywhere access to data, cloud data storage is gaining unprecedented popularity. Security & Privacy of user data stored in cloud services is of utmost concern especially for commercial public cloud platforms & service providers. The user data stored on cloud is encrypted, & it is desired that data mining operations   on encrypted data must be executed efficiently. The proposed system implements a data mining operation namely clustering on encrypted data on cloud platforms using TCP / IP protocol. The clustering operation is performed using standard K-Nearest Neighbors technique & DBSCAN clustering technique optimized for encrypted data.

Keywords: Data Mining, Cloud Data Storage, Client-Server Architecture, TCP/IP Communication, K-Means Clustering, DBSCAN Clusterin.