Predicted future climate change impacts indicate that there will be increases in rainfall, leading to an intensification of the hydrologic cycle. One of the expected consequences of change is an increase in the magnitude and frequency of extreme events (e.g. high intensity rainfall, flash flooding, severe droughts, etc.). The main focus of this study is to see how intensity of rainfall changes in Mekele city under the conditions of the changed climate. To provide present and future Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) information, historically daily and hourly rainfall data was collected and RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate scenarios was spatially downscaled using Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM 4.2.9).Daily rainfall climate scenario data was generated and disaggregated in to hourly basis using regression models. Expected rainfall quantiles (XT) for0.5Hr,1Hr,2Hr.4Hr,6Hr,8Hr,12Hr& 24Hr durations were computed at return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years using frequency analysis. Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) model parameters (A, B and C) were estimated and their performances evaluated. Mathematical relationships between Intensity-Duration-Frequency of rainfall were developed for all stations for the present and future climate conditions. Percentage differences in the intensity of rainfall between the current and future climate scenarios were quantified and general trends for the 21st century time line has established. In general, the outcomes of this study indicate that future rainfall Intensity patterns under the emerging climate change scenarios at Mekele city would vary. It is expected to decrease up to maximum range of 78.61% for longer frequencies while it tends to be higher up to 65.95% at shorter frequencies. These have major implications on ways in which current and future water management infrastructures are designed, operated, and maintained. Consequently, design standards and guidelines currently employed in the study area should be reviewed and/or revised with the reflection of the impacts of climate change.Keywords: IDF relationships, Climate change, Downscaling, Disaggregation.
The objective of the study is to highlight the importance of ethical hacking –As per Jay Bavisi CEO of EC Council Government agencies and business organizations, “In the present globalised-digital era all are in constant touch with ethical hackers to combat the growing threat to IT security”. All the concerned stake holders now understand that if you want to protect a system, you cannot do it by just locking your doors. The study adopted exploratory research model based on past literature using information from research journals, reports, news papers and magazine covering wide collections of academic literature on Good and bad about Ethical hacking in Indian Perspective. The study reiterates that in the dawn of international geo political conflicts, terrorist organizational funding, and cyber criminals to breach security systems which compromises nation’s security, there is an immediate need to educate the people of the country on this global issue.Keywords: Ethical Hacking, cyber law, civil law, cyber terrorism, e-commerce.
The objective of the study is to highlight the impact of GST on restaurant business in India. The study adopted exploratory research technique based on past literature from respective journals, reports, news papers and magazine covering wide collections of academic literature on impact of new taxation reform on restaurant business. On the other hand the paper gives insights in the pre and post taxation policy of the government on food industry. The study concludes on the basis of the literature that GST’s impact will be having both positive and negative implications on food sector i.e. higher the tariff on restaurants (where room tariff more than 7500) have 18% tax which is regressive in nature which reduces the frequency of people visiting to restaurants and the lower tariff hotels with 5% GST have benefited .Where as in comparison with other neighboring countries like China, Malaysia and Singapore the GST rate is higher in India.Keywords: Goods and Service Tax (GST), Value added Tax (VAT), Restaurant Business, Input tax Credit (ITC).
To Foster innovation substantially in technology education, there is the need to expand tertiary institutional workshops as well as reform the pattern of workshop practices among students in the area. This work therefore describes enhancing of workshop and practices among students as a strategy for increasing innovation in technology education. Using relevant literature, this paper addresses areas such as; conceptual definitions in relations to technology education, workshop practices in Nigeria institutions, present state and challenges of technology education practical workshops in Nigeria, the need for the improvement of technology education workshops and practices, developmental strategies for the improvement of technology education practical workshops and practices. It then concluded that enhancing workshop and practices in tertiary institutions will allow student to put their creative thoughts into actions, create more rooms for teamwork, facilitate good students and lecturers/instructors relationship as the lecturer/instructor will as such be able to understand better the student conception and develop plans on to build on them thereby increasing innovation in technology education as new ideas will find their own ground into practices as well as existence.Keywords: Enhancement, Tertiary Institutional Workshops, Practices among Students, Innovation, Technology Education.
The three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped (NPC) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is being employed in industrial and traction applications, static VAR compensation systems, active filtering and utility interconnection applications. Various strategies including carrier-based PWM schemes and Space Vector Modulation (SVM) based PWM schemes have been proposed to balance the NP voltage. The inverters having an odd number of levels will generate zero common-mode voltage by switching among certain states using space vector PWM (SVPWM) techniques. Therefore, motor bearing currents will be eliminated and conducted EMI will be reduced. Three-level inverters generate lower CMV as compared to conventional two-level inverters. The carrier based techniques are presented to control the magnitude and rate of change of common mode voltages in multilevel inverters using different structures of sine-triangle comparison method such as Phase Disposition (PD), Phase Opposition Disposition (POD), and Common Mode Voltage off-set signal addition methods. Simulation results presented confirm the effectiveness of the proposed techniques to control the common mode voltages or reduced the common mode voltage.Keywords: CMV, NPC, VSI, SVPWM, SVM, EMI and ASD.