This review focuses on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid. The inverters are categorized into four classi?cations: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single-phase grid; 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not; and 4) the type of grid-connected power stage. Various inverter topologies are presented, compared, and evaluated against demands, lifetime, component ratings, and cost. Finally, some of the topologies are pointed out as the best candidates for either single PV module or multiple PV module applications.Keywords: AC module, photovoltaic (PV) power systems, single-phase grid-connected inverters.
This research paper has emphasized on the finding out the crucial impacts of Coronavirus pandemic on the global economy and predicting the scenario which will face the world economy in near future. This paper contains various aspects of Coronavirus and its economic impacts by reviewing existing literature and information. Different studies on COVID-19 are collected from different important and relevant websites, journals, newspapers, magazines etc. Supply chain disruption, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) falloffs, diminution of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate, fluctuation of monthly balance of trade and payments, monthly spillover of the unemployment rate and downfall of remittances of the corona affected countries those have at least one thousand affected cases on 22nd March, 2020 has been analyzed. 3.5.1 Version of ‘R’ is used for analyzing collected data. Line graphs are used to depict the changes or trend of variables over a period of time. Results revealed that balance of trade of the countries is decreasing from the early month of this year, 30% to 40% foreign investment has been decreased and unemployment rate will rose to more than 25% all over the world. Findings also exhibited that this crisis could cost 2.7 Trillion US dollar which is about 3.06% of the global GDP. The result of the research has shown strong evidence for the governments, policy makers, economic organizations and experts for taking preventive measures to tackle the upcoming depressive situation. The only use of secondary data restricts us from getting in-depth insights of the situation. This paper identifies some crucial suggestions that are needed for handling upcoming crisis in the socio-economic life style of the people of the universe.Keywords: COVID-19, FDI, Global Economy, GDP, Supply Chain, Unemployment.
A suspension system or compression coil spring is designed to reduce shock impulse, and generate kinetic energy. The coil spring operation is to dissipate or absorb energy. it also absorbs the shock generated by road irregularities in a vehicle, results in enhanced ride quality, and an increase in ride comfort due to reduction of disturbances. In a movement of a vehicle on a road when the wheels meet with a bump, the spring undergoes compression load. This load compresses the spring and try to return to its original loaded length which in the process of rebounding go past its normal height, results in lifting the body. The extended length of the coil due to rebound tries to contract which way past its normal length and again rebound occurs with lower amplitude. This bouncing process of the coil occurs repeatedly until it finally stops. If this bouncing process occurs without any control, it causes uncomfortable ride and also leads to difficult handling of the vehicle. Therefore, designing of spring in the suspension system is very important. In this work, a coil spring is designed and a 3D model is created using CATIA V5. The model is also changed by geometrical modification of the coil. Structural analysis is carried out on the different geometries of coil spring. Structural analysis is done to analyse the strength through stress calculation using ANSYS. The results are compared for the designed coil spring geometries. CATIA is the standard 3D product design software and ANSYS is a general-purpose finite element analysis (FEA) software package. Finite Element Analysis is a numerical method of deconstructing a complex system into very small pieces (of user-designated size) called element.Keywords: Compression, Conical Spring, Geometry, Helical Coil Spring.
Present work portray the synthesis of a new series of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), La(III), and Sn(IV) complexes from a potential bidentate 3-Carboxymethylthio-5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazine (ligand, CMTPT), with metal salts/oxide in an alcoholic medium. Complexes were characterized quantitatively as well as qualitatively, and credible structure of the synthesized compounds was investigated using different physicochemical techniques namely elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectra (LC-MS) and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The spectral studies reveal that the complexes possess monomeric composition and the metal centre moiety is six-coordinated with octahedral geometry in lanthanum (III) and dibutyltin(IV) complexes whereas Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes were found to possess a tetra-coordinated make-up with the ligand coordinated as a uninegatively charged bidentate chelating agent via the oxygen atoms of acetic acid of the ligand. Thereafter, FT-IR and LC-MS spectral data validated the coordinated water molecule in the outer sphere of Cu(II) complex. The ligand (CMTPT) and its metal complexes were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against the Gram positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-121) as well Gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (MTCC-40) and it was observed that metal complexes show enhanced biological activity as compared to pure ligand. In the present study, dibutyltin(IV) complex showed antibacterial activity with 40 mm diameter of highest spectrum zone of inhibition.Keywords: 1, 2, 4-triazine, lanthanum, dibutyltin, transition metal, Antimicrobial activity, inhibition zone.
In the existing scenario requisite of materials for various determinations, increase, so to organize that one's uses of biodegradables are a more electrifying area during this current period. The protagonist of composite materials contained by the sector of engineering is gradually increasing. This study objective to estimate mechanical properties like tensile and flexural strength of hybrid sisal/jute reinforced epoxy composites — the composite samples prepared by hand layup and compression molding technique. The hybrid composites of sisal/jute made-up with various weight ratios (100/0, 70/30, 50/50, 30/70 and 0/100) at 20% and 30% whole fiber fraction. The ultimate lastingness of 41.14 MPa, and 46.85 MPa have 50% jute and 50% sisal for both 20% and 30% fiber fraction respectively. So the hybrid fiber composites have properties better than non-hybrid fiber reinforced epoxy composites.Keywords: Hybrid, Mechanical Properties, reinforced polymer composite and Compression Molding.