From a mythological perspective, the central idea of avataras was conceived to be one of the most significant aspects of Vaishnavism during the Gupta period in ancient India. It signified the fact that varying modes of worship could be brought under the general domain of Vaishnavism, and this notion had begun to associate itself with the identification of the incarnations of Vishnu who would come to the material world with the specific purpose of destroying evil and maintaining dharma. Here, the supposed conception of the Buddha as one of the incarnations of Vishnu, the ascetic prince on his way to renounce the world and bring forth ideal peace, is compared to that of the Vishnu avataras of Rama and Krishna in terms of their respective situational deaths. Whereas Rama assumes the role of the Supreme Godhead in the end and Krishna’s death is mired between divine benediction and enforcement of divine will, the Buddha is portrayed to be a supramundane being who is fully aware of the events that would lead to his demise. Thus, the Buddha is presented as a foil to the overarching idea of the divine will as he doesn’t fit with the Vaishnavite paradigms of fate and destiny, which would supplement the mythic hierarchy of the incarnate and reincarnate; wherein in the case of the Buddha, it is a deliberated propagation that draws out a distanced equivalent amongst the incarnations of Vishnu and the Buddha, who would rather enter Nirvana than achieve Godhead.Keywords: avataras, Buddha, incarnate, Krishna, Rama.
The increase in the number of major disasters in the recent years with the increased exposure of people and property to natural and technological hazards is perhaps the reason for growing interest of people in understanding the concept of disaster management. What then is a disaster? A disaster may be natural or man-made phenomenon which causes or threatens serious disruption of life with little or no warning. Though the origin of the word as per Oxford English Dictionary is traced to the sixteenth century. French word ‘Disaster’ means ‘Evil Star’. The United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs (UNDHA), 2001, defines disaster as a “serious disruption of the functioning of society, causing widespread human, material or environmental losses which exceed the ability of affected society to cope on its own resources”. Lethal animal virus epidemic coronavirus, which has sent panic waves across the world, may have its origins at the epicentre of the epidemic, Wuhan, in a laboratory which has been linked to China's covert biological weapons programme. The Washington Times reported the link with China's biological weapons quoting an Israeli biological warfare expert. According to the report, Radio Free Asia this week rebroadcast a local Wuhan television report from 2015 showing China's most advanced virus research laboratory known as the Wuhan Institute of Virology.
The laboratory is the only declared site in China capable of working with deadly viruses. Dany Shoham, a former Israeli military intelligence officer who has studied Chinese bio warfare, said the institute is linked to Beijing's covert biological weapons programme.Keywords: Community participation, Disasters, Case study, Hazard Assessment, Management Assessment, Risk assessment, Corona Virus.
Social media as a tool for rapid and effective communication has redefined the traditional communication tools such as; phone, computer, and the traditional media through the emergence of Social Networking sites (SNSs). SNSs like facebook, twitter, whatsapp, and others, are now in vogue targeting media audience and particularly patients with chronic conditions to change particular health risk behaviour. Researchers are now focusing on how to leverage on social influence to promote healthy behaviours. The fact that SNSs are widely accessible across geographical barriers and that they are increasingly being used by people on daily basis turn them into especially interesting place for public health interventions in the behavioural domain. Adopting the survey research, theories relevant to this study are the Social Cognitive, Technology Determinism and the Social Cognitive Theories. Using a sample size of 100, findings reveal that a large number of the students in Igbinedion University are aware of social networking sites and they use it often, the health messages received by the students are infrequent and that students do not believe all the health messages they received on social networking sites are true and most of the health messages are not credited to a source. The work concludes that health messages via SNSs have greater influence on people’s health behaviour. The work recommends that the Federal Ministry of Health and Nigeria Communication Commission (NCC) under the auspices of the Ministry of Communication should monitor the flow of health messages on SNSs and that people should be sensitised on the need to take cognizance of health messages on SNSs and adhere to the instructions in order to verify the positive or negative effects of these health messages.Keywords: Social Media, Health, Technology, Behaviour, Information.
Health is the most valuable thing in life. Hand washing is one of the most important factors related to health. An evaluation of the effectiveness of hand washing for hygiene was undertaken to identify the microbial flora on the hand and establish their effects on microbiological quality. Examination of nine volunteer’s hands before washing and after washing with routine soap (carbolic) using tap water found that there was unsatisfactory prevention for microbial contaminations. The isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus species, Corynebacterium species, Acinetobacter species, Micrococcus species and Streptococcus species. Nine samples from the same volunteers were taken after hand washing with disincentive soap (Dettol) and routine soap (carbolic) using sterial drinking water showed that there were no viable bacteria. Those nine samples taken after washing with dettol soap using tap water also showed no growth of bacteria. Total bacterial counts of almost all samples were approximately 10 6 CFU/ml before hand washing. However, total bacterial counts of sample 3,4 and 8 were higher than that of samples taken after hand washing with only tap water. It can, therefore, be concluded that hand washing is important for cleanliness and moreover, effective hand washing in use of proper soap and clean water contribute to the effective outcome.Keywords: Hand washing, health, microbial contamination, soap and water.
This study tries to explore the accounting practices and its impact on manager’s decision making based on a study on the Auto-rice mills of Sherpur District in Bangladesh. For this purpose;a well developed structured questionnaire was administered to explore the Accounting practices of automated rice-mills and their influences on rice-millers and the data were collected from the entrepreneurs and employees of rice mills of Sherpur district.After collecting the data;the data collected were processed and analyzed using simple tabular technique, graphical representation, table of frequencies etc. The statistical measures like scale, mean, standard deviation and percentage were also used to define the variables. However, the findings of the study have revealed that all the private limited-based automated rice mills prepared income statement, balance sheet, owner's equity statement, and receipt-payment accounts whereas only 12 automated mills prepared receipt payment account. It has also found that automated rice mills based on single ownership and partnership obeys self built income calculation system. The findings also revealed that in deciding rice price to be sold to customers, no automated rice-mills assign cost price and rice-millers rely on accounting details for the major decisions.Keywords: Decision Making, Practices, Variables.