In modern days, we are using wireless modern communication systems, which require high data rates and more band width efficiencies. The most well-known 4G technology of wireless standard is Long Term Evolution (LTE) which espoused OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) and MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output) techniques. These techniques are employed on downlink of LTE. A MIMO system utilizes numerous antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to work on the performance of the correspondence system using diversity and multiplexing methods. MIMO framework gives higher phantom effectiveness, further develops unwavering quality, decreases fading and further develops protection from interference. In this paper we give an overview of the MIMO, OFDM and MIMO-OFDM system for wireless communication.Keywords: MIMO, OFDM, MIMO-OFDM, wireless Communication, LTE, Downlink.
The most powerful solution to current harmonics is a shunt active power filter (SAPF). Because of its simple implementation features, the Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) concept has been commonly used in current harmonics extraction algorithms in its controller. The traditional SRF algorithm, on the other hand, has a significant time delay due to its heavy dependency on slow numerical filters. Furthermore, the algorithm is still thought to have unnecessary features that place an undue computational burden on the controller. Active control filters are commonly used in the power system to reduce harmonics induced by nonlinear loads. The Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) injects a suitable compensating current at a line point known as the point of common coupling (PCC) to cancel out the line's harmonics and restore the sinusoidal existence of voltage and current waveforms. As an active filter, a three-phase current-controlled voltage source inverter (VSI) with a DC connection capacitor across it is used. Shunt active power filter (SAPF) is the best solution that minimises the harmonic problems in power systems, but how fast and how effective it is. This paper describes a detailed study about the various types of power quality disturbances and their mitigation techniques and their comparative details.Keywords: Power harmonic filters, Harmonic analysis, Algorithm design and analysis, Active filters, Filtering algorithms, Filtering theory, Current harmonics, DQ theory, Multilevel inverter, Power quality, Shunt active power filter (SAPF).
A robot is a virtual or mechanical agent. In practice, it is often an electro-mechanical system, which looks and speeds as if it were one of its own. The intent and its own agency. The term robot refers to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but often virtual software agents are called bots. There has been no consensus that machines are qualified as robots, but there is a consensus among experts and the public that some or all of the following can be done such as: walking, operating a device or a component of the environment, the environment Understanding and manipulating it and imparting intelligent behavior that mimics human and animal behaveor. The stories of artificial assistants and companions and and the effort to create them have a long history, but fully autonomous machines were the only programmed first robot to run in the digital system since the 20th century, Unimate, In 1971, hot pieces of metal were picked up from the stamp making machine and made to make their stack.
Today, commercial and industrial robots are widely used inexpensively and with greater accuracy and greater reliability than humans. They are also employed for tasks which are very dangerous in human terms. , Messy and boring tasks. Robots are being widely used for manufacturing, assembly and bundling, transportation, earth and space exploration, surgery, weapons manufacturing, laboratory research and consumer and industrial production. Domestic robots are generally common around homes for cleaning and maintenance work. Concerns about the economic impact of robotic weapons and automation are generally common. Remains, a concern that is not resolved by the villainous, intelligent, acrobatic robots described in popular entertainment. Real robots are still benign, retarded, and gross compared to their imaginary counterparts.Keywords: Control systems, Robotics, Mechatronics, GA, Neural network.
The universe of biomedical gadgets is growing quickly with new activities and new innovations. As of now biomedical gadgets are fabricated with countless capacities, exactness, precision, minimization and usability. In portable biomedical devices, power consumption has become a serious problem due to battery life. The operational transconductance amplifier is a mostly used analog processing block. In recent years, the development of OTA with very low conductivity, low power, low voltage and improved linearity has been mainly used in biomedical applications. In this paper present a novel OTA design for biomedical EMG application with operating frequency of this application is 150Hz. The proposed design is simulated using CMOS 90nm environment with power supply of VDD is 0.35V and VSS is -0.35V.Keywords: OTA, EMG, Biomedical Device, Low Power, CMOS Environment.