ijtrseditor@gmail.com   ISSN No.:-2454-2024(Online)

Volume 7 Issue IV

Author: Yash Sharma, Gaurav Tiwari, Arti Vaish
Organisation: Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Sushant University, Gurugram, Haryana, India
Email: yashsharma.btech18@sushantuniversity.edu.in
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.30780/IJTRS.V07.I04.001

Pneumonia is a common infectious disease that is responsible for over one million cases and tens of thousands of deaths annually in the US alone. As an example, in 2017, 1.3 million cases were reported, of which over 50000 died, resulting in a death rate of nearly four percent. To tackle this problem, we have used the RSNA pneumonia detecting challenge dataset provided by the US National Institutes of Health Clinical Centre.

It consists of 26684 X-ray images, of which about 20672 images do not show signs of pneumonia and remaining 6012 images do show signs of pneumonia. Though this project we tried to identify signs of pneumonia in X-Ray images with deep neural networks using PyTorch Lightning which is machine learning framework.

Keywords: Pneumonia, deep neural networks, PyTorch Lightning.
Author: Khairmohammad khairkhwah, Abdul naser stanikzai, Muhammad Wali Sejawandi
Organisation: Department of administration & Diplomacy, Paktia University, Gardez, Afghanistan
Email: khairkhwah.1919@gmail.com
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.30780/IJTRS.V07.I04.002

In this research paper, What the informal system (Jirga) is?, The problems in formal courts system, Judges education and their attitudes and Corruption and individual abuses are discussed. The purpose of the research is to identify The Role of Informal Legal Institutions (Jirga) in the State Building Process in Afghanistan of using descriptive-qualitative methods as well as library resources (documents, books, as well as credible internet sites and articles) This study concludes below: Many times over the past century, Afghan political elites have utilized a loya jirga, or grand national assembly, when they have needed to demonstrate national consensus. Based on traditional village jirgas convened to resolve local disputes, loya jirgas have been used to debate and ratify constitutions, endorse the country's position and alliances in times of war, and discuss how and when to engage the afghan government armed opposition groups in peace talks.

Currently, three systems regulate disputes in Afghanistan such as State’s laws, Islamic law (Sharia) and informal legal system (Jirga System). But 80% of population exists in local areas with isolated from state; they have turned to Jirga system and rejected state’s system because they perceive it to be corrupt, slow and culturally different Even in many occasions when formal courts fail to solve dispute, according to Doing Justice; they “regularly refer cases to the informal system and accept, record their decision for pending cases.

Keywords: Reforming, Jirga System, State building, Afghanistan.
Author: Renu, Jasmeet, Arti Vaish
Organisation: Sushant University, Gurugram, India
Email: artivaish@sushantuniversity.edu.in
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.30780/IJTRS.V07.I04.003

Covid-19 has created fear amongst the people and government. Government policies and strategies to control covid-19 have created a huge economic loss to the country. In March 2020, government of India implemented lockdown when cases of covid-19 were rising rapidly. Later relaxation was provided but another peak of cases was seen in the start of 2021. Due to these multiple lockdowns many businesses were shut, and it impacted GDP very severally. In this paper, researcher analyses the impact of covid-19 lockdown on household consumption patterns in Delhi. Delhi is the capital of India and it would provide significant data and help other Indian states. Researcher analyse the effect of covid-19 lockdown on household consumption patterns and see whether they will be able to regain that confidence. Previous researcher provides a significant result, but they consider only one factor while estimating household consumption. Researchers analyses all the factors and gain data from previous literatures while estimating the consumption expenditure patterns. Researcher uses both qualitative and quantitative data to provide a strong evidence. The survey in this search will provide an in-depth idea of people’s situation in this pandemic lockdown. This research will help government and other states in policy making with an idea of economic growth.

Keywords: COVID, Lockdown, Consumption expenditure, economic growth, supply chain.