In this paper an introduction of Artificial Neural Network is presented. Learning Algorithms like Supervised Algorithms, Reinforcement Algorithms and Unsupervised Algorithms are discussed. Also, optimization methods like Gradient Descent, Newton Method, Conjugate Gradient Method, Quasi Newton and Levenberg Marquardt are presented.Keywords: Artificial Neural Network Supervised Algorithms, Reinforcement Algorithms, Unsupervised Algorithms, Gradient Descent, Newton Method, Conjugate Gradient Method, Quasi Newton and Levenberg Marquardt.
Vernacular architecture based on bioclimatic concepts was developed and used through the centuries by many civilizations across the world. Bikaner is a non-basin settlement in the hot and dry climatic region of India and cooling is the single main agenda for habitation as the temperature is very harsh. The vernacular architecture of the Bikaner Haveli’s has provided a comfortable shelter against the harsh climatic conditions of the region. Solar radiation is very harsh and the region has the maximum number of sunny days. A survey of residential haveli’s, more than 100 years old was carried out in the walled town of Bikaner. The objective of the investigation was to understand the daylight penetration into the interior spaces of the haveli. And also how intelligent architecture protects the interior spaces from excessive hear gain.Keywords: Daylight, Vernacular Architecture, Thermal Comfort.
The current virtual world and the technical trends in socio - economic scenario have alluded the way for a future which calls for collaborative work between machine intelligence, huge computations, giant networks, and big data. The last decade has seen the effective application of different machine learning techniques such as unsupervised, supervised, and reinforcement techniques been used to solve various real life multidisciplinary problems. The objective of this work is to present a systematic overview on the use of data analytics and prediction techniques in various domains of industry. It discusses the roadmap of machine learning towards its potential use in various application domains. vis a vis agronomics, ecommerce, training and various other industry driven application areas. This review paper will discuss the taxonomy of machine learning including the definition and nomenclature, also its possible applications to various industry driven areas is explored. Also, various research gaps have been pointed out which can help the aspiring scholars to pursue their research in this field.Keywords: Machine Learning, Supervised Learning, Unsupervised Learning, Algorithms, Agronomics, Ecommerce, Training Industry, prediction problems.
There is no question that mathematics has played a leading role in the development of physics and engineering through the last century. However the direct participation of mathematicians in solving the problems of industry is the new trend, so called “industrial mathematics”. Industrial mathematics has developed as a new profession. In this report, we will talk about the concepts of industrial mathematics and its importance in the society.Keywords: industrial mathematics.
The rising circumstance in this day and age proposes different visual impairment causing maladies like diabetic retinopathy, Age macular degeneration, waterfall, glaucoma. These are significant eye variations from the norm looked in the clinical world. Early analysis and opportune treatment are required to forestall vision misfortune issues. Advanced technology-based computer-aided diagnosis tools using machine learning techniques help to reduce the workload of the ophthalmologist. In this paper, we concentrated on the survey of different existing machine learning models utilized for building up a determination framework for human services applications. This paper features the survey of existing order models alongside their performances.Keywords: Machine learning, machine learning and healthcare, disease diagnosis using machine learning, classification algorithms, conclusion.
Industrial development and population growth has led to a massive surge in global energy demand. Howsoever, along with rapid advances in renewable energy technology, global environmental issues are opening up new possibilities for the use of renewable energy resources. Solar Photovoltaic is the development phenomenon that generates electrical current by directly converting sunlight into electricity by photovoltaic cells (Silicon based cells, doped with other components). As the most plentiful, inexhaustible and sustainable of the renewable energy available to date, Solar Energy also poses a great factor in reliability. Solar energy cannot henceforth be used as a stand-alone source of electricity. Notwithstanding the possession of many benefits, there are some disadvantages to the introduction of this technology, the deployment costs being the biggest downside withdraws people’s trust in this technology. In this context, this paper will provide a compiled analysis of the data reflecting the technological progress made in the last few years in the field of mono and polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, in addition to reference to any extra work completed. Journey of photovoltaic which started from 1954 now reached to 635GW in the year 2019. Every year new countries are joining the 1GW capacity landmark and making this journey more successful. To a very great extent, the worldwide growth of photovoltaics is dynamic and strongly varies by region. Started by William Grylls Adams in 1876 and the continuous evolution of solar photovoltaics, by the end of 2016 a massive increase came, Where the combined photovoltaic potential increased by more than 75 GW, resulting in huge output, adequate to meet 1.8 percent of the total worldwide electricity demand. Through this paper, the detailed data of the development, nation wise, and the steps taken by the countries to enhance growth over the years have been depicted to produce a well-established knowledge of the facts available on the same.Keywords: Solar energy, solar photovoltaic, global energy, energy resources.
Water is one of the main sources of life after air. Industrial development and modernization is happening so rapidly but without water life cannot be imagined. Water is consumed by all of us in different ways in daily life. As earth is covered with 70% of water but still water has globally become a matter of concern. In this paper small steps are discussed to save water. Even the industry that provides us with goods requires a lot of water for production. Some major problems are discussed in the paper which led to scarcity of water. Rapid growing population, that has led to more construction of houses that require a large amount of water. As to deal with all these problems we as engineers have come up with some inexpensive and easy ways to save water from being wasted and making it available and useful for some other purposes. Due to the advancement of technology and science it has been made possible to help take control of such problems very easily. Mentioned below are some ways to save water without investing a lot of money. Making proper pipe connections without leaks can save a lot of water. Not letting the water storage tanks overflow with the help of automated devices. Efficient use of water can be done by wise consumption, conservation and care of water so that future generation can also be benefited.Keywords: Water Conservation, Consume, Care of Water, Daily Household Chores, automated devices.
This paper is an attempt made to calculate the estimate quantity of solid waste that can be generated in India as well as other countries of the world. This data estimates the generation potential of energy through combustion of solid waste. Huge amount of waste production shows a big problem in many nations. Disposals of waste is done in lands and this gives a rise to an urgent issue related to resource managing consumers. Recycling, safe disposal of waste and using of material with low calorific value comes in waste management to produce energy. This concept of waste to energy is economically good and have environmental benefits and introduce a renewable energy resource as well. Environmental sustainability can be achieved by using waste as renewable resource and shortage in energy sources can be compensated. The drastic change in energy consumption can be seen over few years which is increasing day by day, 261 billion cubic of gas and 85.4 million barrels of oil is being used per day. By the year 2009 the consumption of gas reached to 335 billion cubic feet and same for oil it increased up to 91.2 million barrels, 28% increase in gas consumption and 7% increase in oil consumption was noted in year 2013. In 2015 the oil consumption reached to 95 million barrels, by this data we have an idea that utilization of waste for producing energy to satisfy the increasing demand is very much needed. The main objective of this study is to compare the efforts done by different countries to overcome this huge waste problem as well as to overcome the second huge demand of energy. As we can compare the efforts made by Egypt for the aim to produce energy by managing of waste and efforts done by Indian city in A.P. named as ELURU. Adoption of the best way to solve these huge problems are compulsory as to secure the future of our country.Keywords: Solid waste, waste production, water waste, recycling, Biofuel and renewable sources.
Cyber security means being in a state of security from the vulnerabilities available in the network. Being in a world, where millions and trillions of systems are interconnected, it is quite important to save our precious data from cyber-attacks. This paper focusses on the cyber security trends and corresponding challenges.Keywords: Cyber Security, Cyber-Attacks, Vulnerabilities, Cyber Threats.
Remotely sensed time series data is increasingly gaining attention in research due to its wide coverage and high temporal resolution. The vegetation indices (NDVI and EVI) products are mainly obtained from medium resolution satellite sensors such as NOAA/AVHRR, SPOT/VGT, Landsat TM, etc. These products are highly used in various remote sensing applications for detecting long term LULC changes, phenological crop identification, environmental dynamics and climate change, modelling terrestrial ecosystems on global, continental and regional levels. Although the time series datasets of vegetation indices obtained from different satellite sensors have been proved to manage the global environmental change, residual noise due to poor atmospheric conditions and instrumental errors generate unfavorable/erroneous results which impedes further analysis. This study focuses on reducing noise from the daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) NDVI datasets for the period 2016-2019 using three different de-noising techniques namely Fast Fourier Transform(FFT), Moving Average filter(MA), Savitzky-Golay technique(SG) for noise reduction and reconstruction of time series MODIS NDVI data. The evaluation of the de-noising algorithms was first carried out on synthetically generated signals (sine, square and triangular) to which Gaussian noise with multiple variance levels was introduced. Since smoothing temporal data with ideal noise free data is not possible, therefore, a two-step validation process is implemented which first measures the performance of the techniques on simulated signals using Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and then evaluated the de-noising algorithms both spatially and temporally. For temporal evaluation, NDVI datasets for five land cover classes namely forest, built-up, agriculture, water-body and wasteland from four different locations were selected and reconstructed using the three de-noising algorithms. The filtering techniques were able to reduce the noise from the temporal profiles of all the land cover types by removing the sudden peaks and drops from the NDVI time-series. Performance of temporal analysis was further validated using statistical parameters such as RMSE, PSNR and Pearson correlation coefficient. Hence, the de-noising algorithms were able to reconstruct the NDVI data while preserving the spatial and temporal pattern for better analysis and interpretation.Keywords: De-Noising algorithms, FFT filter, Moving Average filter, Savitzky-Golay, Time Series.
River water is significant for every living organism. In Indian mythology rivers are given the status of Goddess and were worship. Modernization and urbanization has polluted the river water and degraded their status. Assessment of water quality and determination of pollution level has become a big necessity today. In view if above, the present work envisages findings of various physicochemical characteristics (pH, hardness, chloride, alkalinity, etc.) examined for Gomti river water samples collected from three different locations of Lucknow. This study was meant to determine the recent status of River Gomti along the Lucknow stretch. Results of the study indicated that river water is highly contaminated and not suitable for recreational activities.Keywords: Gomti River, Physiochemical studies.
These days vehicle robbery cases are higher than any other time. On an average in America there is a vehicle robbery in every 40.9 seconds in recent times. As per the Insurance Information Institute (III) almost 8 lakh vehicles were stolen every year. The first consideration is safety and this paper addresses all this with the tracking of vehicle, offering different features like – Anti-theft system, face recognition, live vehicle tracking, alerts on towing of the vehicle and sharing the current location of the vehicle. System is equipped with technology that enables to send information only to the selected users if there is some sort emergency situation occurs. The other concern about the vehicle is the performance parameters which can be labeled as status of the vehicle’s functions like – digital fuel monitoring and rash driving warnings. For this, sensors used are Level sensor, IR sensor, PIR sensor and Shock Sensor. Other equipment used are OLED display, Buzzer alarm, Arduino Uno, GSM, GPRS Module, Raspberry Pi and Camera. All the information is sent on the user’s mobile application using Wi-Fi Module.Keywords: Global Positioning System (GPS), Global System for Mobiles (GSM).
Internet of things enables us to share data over large or small scalable networks, that consist of inter-related computing devices, sometimes referred to as nodes of the network, without the interference of humans or other machines. Because of the effortless communication between IoT devices, IoT is prevalently used in Security Systems. Two-Wheelers are the preferred vehicle to steal due to the ease with which they are dismantled and Two-wheeler thefts are at a rapid rise in India, whereas the rate of recovery remains horribly low, leading to a huge loss that can be considered unrecoverable. A survey of the presently available security measures and systems was carried out. The objective of the investigation was to understand the security measures that are needed to be taken, as well as the current availability of the same in the market. Following this, a system was designed and developed using IoT components to create a smart security system that is effective, as well as affordable.Keywords: Security System, Two Wheelers, Recovery, Theft Avoidance.
Cognitive radios have created an ability to transmit data to licensed users in several bands without causing harmful interference. But this has also resulted in newer security threats along with the awareness of cognitive radios. Adversaries exploit vulnerabilities of this latest technology and cause significant degradation of the performance. The existing research on security issues in cognitive radio networks indicates that cognitive networks are very prone to multiple security threats on various protocol layers. Moreover, possible countermeasures are suggested to combat threats at different layers but which countermeasures are really capable of counteracting these threats are very difficult to identify. In this paper, a detailed analysis of globally identified security threats within a cognitive radio network (CRN) is presented. Upon careful review of the researches been done so far, graphical representation of potential countermeasures to combat security threats at each layer is given. There is vast scope of implementing these countermeasures and measure the performance of cognitive radio networks.Keywords: RN, Countermeasures, Security threats.
There is a strong need to establish a chain of energy transfer mechanisms that can lead to a tamper-proof, scalable, and transparent solution. Energy Internet, being a futuristic approach can prevent data tampering and help recording of transactions in a more efficient and a secured way. The clean and direct energy transfer from origin to consumers and its tracking is important to make the transfer of renewable energy a digital and smooth experience. This paper proposes the model of decentralized energy network in assimilation with blockchain. Also, analyzing the applications of blockchain in the energy network, we deliver a novel application of blockchain in decentralized network systems. Further, the paper summarizes the present challenges and their potential future scopes.Keywords: Smart grid, decentralization, energy, network, blockchain, smart contract.
This paper aims to provide a tactical approach to prevent car theft and recovery methods to recover the stolen car. In this work, different car theft prevention techniques are studied and survey has been done on various customers to have a better picture of their requirement. A new car theft prevention technique has been proposed based on the survey done. The basis of the proposed method is for tracking the car alarm system which has noise, light and button sensors which are used to monitor the different parts of the car.Keywords: Car theft prevention techniques, GPS System, RFID technology, sensors.