The field of computing is constantly expanding and growing, and cloud computing is no exception. It is gaining attention by offering various computing services such as cloud storage, cloud hosting, and cloud servers to various businesses and academic institutions. From the other end, there are several concerns over cloud security and privacy. In the cloud computing environment, security is still a major issue. With all of the advantages of cloud computing, there are numerous security issues about infrastructure, virtualization, networking, data, and service providers that serve as a major barrier to cloud acceptance in the IT industry. In this paper, various protection and privacy issues related to cloud infrastructure are analyzed.Keywords: Security, Privacy, Cloud.
The advanced generation of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Galileo system and GPS system use a modern modulation process named as Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) modulation. BOC signal is the product in time domain of PRN code, a sinusoidal carrier, a subcarrier and a data sequence. This paper presents the general difference between BPSK modulation and BOC modulation. Followed by this, BOC scheme is further explained in detail along with its different variants, Acquisition techniques and Tracking schemes.Keywords: GNSS, BOC, BPSK, Acquisition techniques and tracking schemes.
Fog computing helps in storing data near to end users and it is taken as the modified level of cloud computing. There are many cloud platforms where we can store the data but because of some limitations, lots of data could not be processed on time. Apart from that, there are various challenges in terms of load balancing over cloud which we need to handle very carefully sothat there is no congestion, less energy consumption and minimum delay in processing. With the help of optimized load balancing models and algorithms, we can increase the productivity of fog-cloud networks. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of load balancing algorithms which creates warehouse of data at very fast access rate to the mobile users. At present scenario, this can be easily done using fog computing in very accessible way. It is an interface between end users and cloud layer and provides higher data access and retrieval services to the end users. This paper includes architecture of cloud computing and its attributes which is necessary to concentrate on the interplay and coordination in between fog and cloud layer. This paper also focuses on some important parameters which are considered in minimizing load over fog-cloud and try to improve the data access rate.Keywords: Fog-Cloud computing, optimization, delay in power or energy consumption, workload distribution.
The mathematical modelling and linearization of the laboratory non-linear aerial dynamical system, the Twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS), are presented in this paper. It can be used to solve real-world problems and to test the efficiency of controllers in control engineering. To achieve stable hovering conditions, a feedback control system with Tilted-Integral Derivative (TID) and Integral-Tilted Derivative (I-TD) controllers is linked within the continuous feedback loop for improving the control signal and varying the operational gains accordingly, taking into account high order nonlinearities and TRMS instability. Grey Wolf Optimization, a reliable and powerful metaheuristic evolutionary algorithm, is used to optimize the designed controllers. Manual disturbances are applied to both the yaw and pitch actuator angle stabilization controllers to validate their accuracy.Keywords: Dynamical Aerial System, TID, I-TD, Grey Wolf Optimization, TRMS, Controller Design.
Use of waste product (discarded item for consumption) in concrete as partial replacement of cement could be a stepping stone in development of sustainable ecofriendly materials. In this paper waste glass powder is used for the investigation regarding replacement of cement in concrete. The pozzolanic properties of fine glass powder make it suitable for application in concrete. In order to commenced the study a number of experiments has been takes place like Compressive Strength Test (CST), Slump Test (ST) and Flexural Strength Test (FST). Above mentioned tests were conducted to investigate the replacement of cement by using 10% glass powder. A set of different curing age (7 days and 28 days) is considered for the experimentation purposes. Results obtained from strength tests of the glass powder based concrete were promising and clearly indicating towards the better economic aspects of glass powder for utilization as the replacement of cement in concrete.Keywords:
Algal biomass is considered as best option for clean and green energy due to its fastest growth, sink for pollutants. This study deals with biofuel production from the algal biomass collected from River Kharkai at Jamshedpur, Jharkhand processed under laboratory. Chlorella vulgaris, Chlamydomonas rheinhardii , Botryococcus braunii, Scenedesmus sp.,Microcystis aeruginosa, Nitzschia sp. ,Cladophora sp. ,Porphyridium cruentum ,Zygnema sp. ,Spirogyra sp., Synechoccus sp are the major algal species recorded during study period that have biofuel generation capacity. An amount of 0.865 g dry wt m-2 algal biomass collected from the site. Soxhlet extraction method having chloroform: methanol (2:1) was used for Lipid extraction. 21.87% of lipid was extracted from collected algal biomass. Extracted lipids were further hydrolyzed for release of fermentable sugar by trans-esterification and single step acid hydrolysis process. These fermentable sugars converted into an amount of 56.76% bioethanol which shows the green energy potential of River Kharkai.Keywords: Algal Biomass, Green Energy, Bioethanol, River Kharkai.
Research paper presents simulation study of submitting technical losses of existing and renewable integrated real time network. All along with variations recorded in voltage profile at 400 KV levels are deliberately presented with test network modeling of existing system that is a part of Indian National grid synchronized at 765 KV and 400 KV voltage levels. Disturbances recorded for the financial year 2018-19 is being practiced to judge the increment of losses that are possibly to raise with the adherence of renewable energy system from 20 % to 70 % in a gap of ten percent. The paper discusses test network modeling basics, operations strategy in case of voltage issues are briefed. System deficiencies are represented with possible suggestions.Keywords:
In the recent years, the scenario of education has changed a lot. It has moved from one platform to another by using various new techniques and technologies. In this sector, the new technology that is growing very fast is Educational Data Mining. Though the term ôData Miningö is very popular but when it get added with the education sector it is named as mining the educational data on various prospects to find the useful patterns of data that can serve Educators, Stakeholders, Academicians and other personnel to find out the learning patterns of students and to retain their intensity of failure. In this paper we are discussing about classification algorithm and feature selection method that can be used to find the most relevant attribute for predicting the performance of students.Keywords: Educational Data Mining, Classification, Feature selection.
Signal processing have greatly enhanced the detection and resolution capabilities of modern radar systems. Adoption of pulse compression technique to non-coherent pulse compression (NCPC) systems such as non-coherent radars (using magnetron) need the optimum waveforms to enhance the system performance. The central issue of radar signal design is to detect and resolve nearby targets at long range. This paper presents design strategies of waveforms for NCPC radar systems, which can enhance the detection and resolution performances of radar system. Proposed sequences can also be used for coherent and non-coherent processing simultaneously without degrading the enrgy efficiency.Keywords: Range-resolution, pulse compression, cross-correlation, non-coherent processing.
Device-to-Device (D2D) underlay cellular networks can significantly improves the userĺs throughput. Nevertheless, the three-tier interference between macrocell- femtocell- D2D systems is becoming challenging in the heterogeneous network. In this paper, first we formulated a Stackelberg game approach, with multiple leaders-multiple followers, macrocell base station (M-BS), and femtocell base station (F-BS) as the leaders and D2D pairs as followers. The leaders minimize the interference by charging prices from followers and followers react to this charging price and find an optimal transmit power. In current work D2D pairs are categorized into sub-classes based on their movement inside the network, each class represented to a different utility function. From different utility functions we get the optimal price for leaders and optimal transmit power for followers. The simulation results show that the proposed approach reduces the transmit power according to the D2D users' requirement and improves system throughput.Keywords: Resource allocation, Stackelberg game, Price, Transmit power.
The analysis of the concept for self-balancing robots and its theory and implementations was proposed in this paper. Self-balancing bots are based on the inverted pendulum theory. In crisis situations and mountain regions, these types of bots can be used to provide medicines. A Self Balanced Robot has the ability to stand upright only by using the two wheels that minimise the bot 's height. As a Spy Bot, it has a really successful application. It relies essentially on the inverted framework of pendulum and balancing with sophisticated controllers and PID algorithms. The idea of creating this self-balancing bot is an inspiration for potentially moving two-wheel bots that can make it simpler and more effective for a man to operate. We can reduce the risk of human life mortality by using bots in hilly areas, such as mountains, in the event of disasters to provide services and to provide rescue operations at times of need.Keywords: PID-Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller, Inverted Pendulum, MATLAB Design, MPU-6050.
Water is one of the essential needs of our life, without which the survival does not exist. For a healthy life it is important to consume water free of contaminants. Whether people residing in urban or in rural region, faces the problem of unhealthy drinking water. As in cities with day to day increase in population the quality of available water declines, whereas in villages people have to rely on open sources such as surface water, wells, lakes, rivers and ponds which might not be safe to drink all the time. In this paper we have presented the use of a simple filtration technique by using locally available material like sand, aggregate and charcoal as a filter media. Some of the parameters such as TDS, pH, Turbidity, Total Hardness, color and odor have been tested for checking the quality of filtered water to rendered it fit for drinking. This technology is economic, easy to operate and can easily serve the drinking water need of a rural family and a better alternative to RO technology common for an urban household.Keywords: Sand-Filters, Low-cost water treatment, Water Pollution, Bio-sand filters.
Energy security, today, is of greatest concern for a sustainable future. For convenience, using newer technologies, we are accelerating the consumption of depleting resources viz. Oil, timber and fossil fuel. Nuclear and hydro power has inherent implications in maintaining ecological balance. Nature itself provides abundance of green renewable energy to meet all human requirements. Centuries old practices have been forgotten. This paper includes the latest solar and wind energy utilisation techniques. Augmentation of centuries old techniques for irrigation have also been explored. It is towards this end that the flexible modular concept is suggested for irrigation in remote hilly regions. People from Uttarakhand hills in India have abandoned cultivation all together and mostly migrated to plains in search of alternate livelihood. This is disturbing the demography of the entire region and further cascading the problem of overpopulation in cities. The village land is lying virtually abandoned. The locals are confining themselves to very small scale farming by tapping meagre available water. Lifting of water from low level for terrace cultivation by way of pumps etc is not economical. This paper aims to suggest a concept of utilising the natural energy sources like gravitational flow, barometric pressure, wind and solar energy. As complementary to this effort the farmers need to learn the importance of rain harvesting. For saving of water they need to resort to drip and capillary irrigation. This integration of old and new techniques for a sustainable solution is critically explored.Keywords: Drip irrigation, green energy, rain water harvesting.
Hindi is the national language of India. A massive number of peoples share, retrieve, and access documents in the Hindi language. Hindi Word Sense Disambiguation (HWSD) system used to extract ambiguity from the Hindi language. ôWord Sense Disambiguation (WSD) eliminates ambiguity and you can easily understand the meaning of a specific ambiguous word used in sentenceö. It comes up as a field of research in computational linguistics and it helps in learning the real concept of the words appearing in a particular context. Humans can easily use the WSD technique to distinguish the different meanings and can speak a better language. However, computers may find it difficult to deal with the WSD technique. There are different approaches using which it has become easy to carry out the complete procedure. The four main approaches, which are commonly used, are knowledge-based, Supervised, Semi-Supervised, and Unsupervised. Hence, it improves the computerĺs performance and you can learn the true importance of search engine optimization. It also helps in collecting information and helps in dealing with different softwareĺs. If you are looking for a voice assistant this method works the best and you can explore the best form of machine learning. It comes up with an organized neural network and the algorithms help in detecting the differences easily and you would get accurate results. There is an inner layer of the network with nodes and you can recognize the binary values, which are set according to the frequency of the context words followed by the ambiguous words. On the other hand, there is an outer layer too consisting of the nodes, which has a similarity to the senses of the ambiguous words. ôIn this paper, we describe different approaches used in WSD, resources required for disambiguation tasks, and a review of previous works for the Hindi languageö.Keywords: Word Sense Disambiguation, Neural Network, Machine Learning.
With the growing population across the world, there is a call for the availability of freshwater to meet our necessities. There is an increase in water scarcity from 14% of the global population in the 1900s to 58% in the 2000s. Though we have nearly 70 percent of the earthĺs surface covered with water, still only 0.5 percent of total water is available for human consumption because almost 97% of water is sea water which requires desalination and water purification to make it apt for drinking purposes. Over many years our researchers have been working on various techniques such as Multistage distillation, Reverse Osmosis (RO), Membrane Distillation (MD), Electrodialysis (ED), Nanofiltration (NF), Ultrafiltration (UF), Forward Osmosis (FO), Solar desalination,etc. This paper reviews the various processes (advantages & disadvantages) and their commercialization.Keywords:
SROSS-C2 satellite data and two modelled data obtained from IRI ľ 2016 and NRLMSISE-00 models are used to analyze the diurnal behavior of ionospheric plasma temperatures (electron ľ Te and ion - Ti) and neutral temperature (Tn) during LSA (year ľ 1995) and HSA (year ľ 2000). The measured SROSS-C2 satellite data and the modelled data of IRI2016 and NRLMSIS00 was obtained over the Indian region of ~ 5-30║N geographic latitude and ~ 65-95║E geographic longitude at an altitude of ~500 km. Plasma temperatures (Te and Ti) show similar diurnal features while the neutral temperature (Tn) shows completely different features. During morning time, Te and Ti exhibit morning overshoot during LSA and HSA. Evening enhancement is observed only during LSA. Te and Ti as estimated by IRI2016 underestimates the measured SROSS-C2 satellite values. The Tn as estimated by both the models have similar magnitude values.Keywords:
A semi-empirical formula has been proposed in this paper to calculate bulk modulus of Zinc blende structured III -V and II-VI semiconductors in terms of bond hardness. Bond hardness is calculated using valence electron number, covalent / ionic radius and co-ordination number of bonded atoms of the tetrahedral semiconductors. To calculate the resultant bond hardness covalent and ionic contributions to bond hardness are separately calculated. Results obtained using the proposed relation agrees well with the experimental and theoretical values of other researchers.Keywords: bond hardness, atomic stiffness, bulk modulus, ionicity.
Polyurethane (PU) is the most versatile group of Polymer materials & carbon fiber is the best appropriate reinforcing material. Quantitative and Qualitative evidence from bibliometrics is used for in-depth statistical analysis which provides research knowledge and also presents research progress along with new trends in the particular research area. For Bibliometric analysis, we use the time frame from its inception to April 13, 2021, search & collect the data from the Web of Science (WoS) database platform. In our analysis, it shows that there is a significant increase in research paper number from 2014 onwards. Worldwide, most research came from China and India came on 5th position with only 12 articles were china with 125 articles. Moreover, in this study, we systematically elaborated the hotspots of PUCFs studies. Towards the end, we analyze some topics and perspectives that indicate current scientific hotspots and also try to bring insights for future research directions.Keywords: Polyurethane, carbon fiber, composite, Bibliometric analysis.
Recently, green approaches for the synthesis of metal-based nanoparticles are gaining popularity due to their cost-effectiveness and environment friendly nature as compared to physical and chemical methods where different toxic chemicals are used which directly affect the environment. During synthesis of metal-based nanoparticles through green approach, various biological components like leaves, stems, roots, flowers etc. are used as stabilizing as well as reducing agents. According to WHO report, metal-based nanoparticles have been used as an effective agent against different pathogens due to which they are also investigated for their biomedical applications. This review summarizes the overview of synthesis of metal-based nanoparticles (Ag, Au, Fe, Zn, Pd and Ni) and their antimicrobial activities. The novelty of this review is based on the comparative studies of different types of metal-based nanoparticles and their development as more effective antibacterial agents against multi-resistant gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Metal-based nanoparticles, Green synthesis, Gram-negative, Gram-positive.
Canna indicaL.(family Cannaceae), an ornamental herb, possesses innumerable phytochemicals comprising of polyphenolic secondary metabolites flavonoids, isoprene polymers terpenoids, basic nitrogen containing organic molecules alkaloids, proteins, steroids, glycosides, oils, triterpene glycosides saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and pigmentsetc. in good proportions. Traditionally, it has been used as home remedy for different ailments. Studies conducted to explore the potential of this plant reveal that it demonstrates bactericidal, antiviral, anthelmintic, molluscicidal, anesthetic, immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, hemostatic, antihepatotoxicproperties. It also reduces inflammation, controls diarrhea and serves as antioxidant. This article offers details of chemical constituents which are responsible for pharmacological, non-pharmacological properties of Canna indica which may serve as a base to explore its pharmacognostic& pharmacological characteristics that can further be exploited for medicinal and non -medicinal purposes.Keywords:
Nature has its own power to cure each and every living being, we the humans are continuously not acknowledging these natural medicines and therapies which are already mentioned in our culture or olden times. The most fundamental definition of immunity is the ability of the organism to resist the attack of microorganisms and harmful substances. Many herbs, fruits, vegetables, dry fruits, spices, Vitamins, Minerals etc. may act as immunity booster for humans. The intensity of ôYogaö, to cure and avoid diseases or as immunity boosting capacity is a well known fact. Considering the facts of COVID 19, this review is an amalgamation of alimentary and physical components which helps to boost the immunity in humans.Keywords: immunity, booster, herbs, fruits, spices, Yoga.
Plants are the chief source of active ingredients or chemicals which are used in pharmaceutical industry. Pharmacological activity of plants makes them useful for curing bacterial, fungal contagions and also chronic-progressive diseases like diabetes and cancer etc. The synthetic molecules prepared in the laboratories, when used as medicine for treating for different diseases produce several side effects and continuous usage of those medicines is not recommended. The search for new plant based molecules for the pharmaceutical and agrochemical manufacturing companies are continuous process that necessitates continual optimization. In this article, we present the process of extraction of phytochemicals, isolation and identification of organic compounds. Antioxidant and anticancer properties of some of the plants are also discussed.Keywords:
Textile wastewater due to the presence of dyes effluents has become a severe environmental problem worldwide and has reached on alarming stage. Therefore, from past few decades, different practices have been used by researchers and scientist to eliminate these effluents. Among them, adsorption is one most effective method due to its low cost, ease availability and handling. Recently, graphene oxide and its composites are gaining a lot of attention for removing not only dye effluents but other contaminants also. The present review reveals the importance of graphene oxide and their composites to eliminate dyes affluents from waterbodies along with classification of dyes and different adsorption techniques.Keywords: Dye effluents, Adsorption, Graphene oxides, Textile wastewater.
Copper oxide (CuO) is a suitable material for the application of photovoltaic where the role of lattice defects is remarkable for shaping its other physical and optical properties. In the present study, we report the structural properties of Ti doped copper oxide (CuO: Ti) (with x=0, 0.0078, 0.0156, 0.0234, 0.0312) nanostructures prepared by sol-gel method. The electrical property of CuO nanoparticles changes with changing the concentration of Ti dopant. The resistivity of undoped CuO is higher than the Ti doped CuO. The XRD (X-ray diffraction) pattern results the formation of pure phase of CuO for x=0 and no impurity phase is observed at 450oC and 600oC.Keywords: Copper oxide, CuO: Ti, sol-gel method, four point probe system and X-ray diffraction.
The composition effect on bond hardness and microhardness of semiconductors alloys, InP1-xAsx, In1-xGaxP, ZnS1-xSex and Cd1-xZnxS has been reported in this paper. The value of both bond hardness and microhardness tend to increase (decrease) with decrease (increase) in ionic size of the doped ion relative to the host ion. Based on this trend of variation a linear relation has been proposed between microhardness and bond hardness. The covalent and ionic contributions to bond hardness are separately computed and then the resultant value has been calculated for each of the systems studies with x ranging from o to 1. Results are in good agreement with the experimental and reported values.Keywords: semiconductor alloys, atomic stiffness, bond hardness, microhardness, ionicity.